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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STUDENTS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL CERTIFICATE
Background of the Study
Education is one the important factors which helps in bringing about rapid social and economic development in any given nation. It is a medium through which various categories of man power is developed and sustainable development achieved. It is the manpower resources that utilize the available physical and financial resources to provide the services and function that eventually bring about economic and social development.
According to Onah (2008), education refers to a family process or activities intend to bring about learning. It is a process of developing knowledge, ability in learners in such a way that they use this knowledge to improve themselves and the society. The process of education involves different methods of transmitting information with the intention of bringing about positive change in the behaviour of the students. The best way of developing human resources and human capital is through education within the context or framework of their level of understanding.
Education of students is the best way through which teachers find their fulfillment and actualization. The Junior Secondary Certificate Examination (JSCE) is a public examination in Nigeria conducted by each state of the federation through their respective Ministry of Education (MOE) for final year students of the junior Secondary School. Each state also develops administer marks, awards, grades and certificate to all public schools under its jurisdiction. Since English language and Integrated science are meant to serve as the yardstick for admission into the senior secondary school as the core subjects. A student who is there by admitted is assumed to posses the abilities and skills necessary to cope with the academic challenges.
According to Oga and Udemba (2007) posited that English language is one of the major languages out of about 5,000 estimated languages spoken in the world. It is one of the most influential and fastest growing languages spoken across the globe. One fifth of the earth’s land surface use English language either as native tongue or official language. It is the most widely studied language used by entire world especially in areas where it is not native. Likewise integrated science according to Oladimeji in Ene (1991) is defined as amalgamated course designed to show the unity, wholeness and interrelationship of the distinct disciplines of Biology, Chemistry, Physics and so forth, should not be discernible. It is the virture of its name by bringing together of different branches of science as a unified whole through the concepts and methods which pervade the natural science. English language as the major language makes the transmission of integrated science effective and efficient (from new encyclopedia Britannica vol. 27p 32 2005).
Science is simply defined as knowledge for natural process that are universal among mankind, which has existed since the dawn of human existence. It is the study of nature, which includes man and his environment. The study of science is the effort the discover and increase human understanding of how the physical world works.
According to Otiji (2008), the early modern science, this period is believed to have started in 1543 when De Revolution Ibus by the astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus was first printed, which hinged on the assumption that the earth moves round the sun. The introduction of science as the iron age that set in metals such as bronze, copper and gold. It brought the transformation of Local technology to modern technology which the junior secondary students do as integrated. Science as a subject. The science and technology of today is said to have evolved gradually through the period of 300-500 BC to the present day advanced stage with the invention of very advanced cutting edge technologies. It is borne out of man’s desire and curiosity to know more about himself, his environment and how to solve his problems to make life more comfortable.
Ofuebe (2007) views science as a variety of information, abilities and operations about the natural environment. Science is more concerned with various investigative processes and activities with regards to developing, acquiring and controlling knowledge, skills, capabilities and attitudes about the natural factors of the environment. From these processes, reliable and verifiable information are accumulated for used in science and other disciplines.
Okebukola (2001) explain science as a human enterprise involving systematic study of an environment with a view to make logical and reasonable explanation about nature and find solution to the problems that confront man.
According to Ekere (2003) Science is defined as an attempt by human beings to organize their experiences about nature into meaningful systems of explanation. This experiences includes knowledge of human actions on things, events or situations and also the result or consequences of such action.
Everett (1993), wrote that science is the kind of knowledge that is based on facts established by careful observation experiment and repeatedly verified. By observation and experimentation, the scientist collects facts that seen to apply to his particular problem and can be tries to classify them to some kind of other system. From these, science is the study of knowledge about the structure and behaviour of the natural and physical world, based on the fact that you can prove for example by experimenting the new developments in science and technology. It can also be a system for organizing the knowledge about a particular subjects especially one concerned with aspects of human behaviour or society.
DOTT (2003) Commented that science consist simply of the formulation and testing of hypothese based on observation evidence, experiments are important where applicably but their function is merely to simplify observation by imposing controlled conditions. It is the concerted human effort to understand or to better to the history of the natural world and how the world works with observing natural phenomena and discovering new things.
Dienye and Gbamanja (1990) posited that human survival is dependent on knowledge, and this survival is enhanced by man’s ability to integrated several disparate realities for his use. With aims of training the students in the process of scientific investigation. Integrated science means the combination of various disciplines of science with eliminates and which does not recognize the traditional subject boundaries when presenting topics.
Ogbonna (1982) cited by Ene (1991) that Integrated science by virtue of its name is the bringing together of different branches of science as a unified whole through the concepts and methods which pervade the natural science. Integrated science is therefore defined as an approach to the teaching of science which concepts in science discipline are combined and presented in such a way that the students learn science as a whole instead of learning it as a separate disciplines. This helps the students to know the basic concepts and keys idea which proving opportunities for students to learn reasoning skill and a new way of thinking about their environment.
Science can also be view as a method of obtaining knowledge. This can be achieved through many skills and some of the process skills involved in scientific inquiry includes observation, verification and experimentation. In English language, however the procedural processes are syntax, semantic, structure, lexical, morphology, phonetic and phonology etc. Integrated science it’s origin between 1957 and 1969. When growing awareness was generated and efforts made towards developing functional, and integrated science curriculum.
Integrated science covered only two years programme but this was up-dated in 1982 and redesigned to cover three years programme. With the new policy in education and the introduction of 6-3-3-4 educational systems in the country. Integrated science as a subject has been made compulsory in the junior secondary school.
This therefore serves as starting point for teaching of introductory part of other areas of science subjects. The survey of English language is an indisputable fact that language like every other subject has its history. It has undergone a lot of changes in its original structure. The old English is not appreciated by the modern speakers of English language unless such speakers have undergone some special training in that area. But inspite of this, through all the centuries the continuity in the development of the proper and sound system of English language has been ensured and maintained.
According to Jowith (1991), English language is known as standard English from nineteenth century, this was the period in which British men began coming to the country in steadily increasing numbers as missionaries, trader, soldiers and government officials. Their presence helped to ensure that standard British English has a prestige in Nigeria as in Britain. This was the modal held up in schools for Nigerian learners to emulate in primary, secondary and higher education.
From Deignton (1997), the early modern period of English began in the late fifteenth century with the publication by William carton of his first book printed in England with the end of the wars of roses. There was a great difference between the early modern English and the present day English. In a bid to draw distinction among the various types of English language used in this period has emphasized that “Although the English language is considered to have entered into its modern period after 1450, the language of Shakespear (1564-1616) and the King James bibles (1611) certainly differs in many ways from the English of the twentieth century”. Accordingly, a distinction is usually made from 1,700 n words. It must be emphasized at this point that English language continued to change in various forms, ranging from the syntax, morphology, grammer, phonetic and phonological symbols to semantic and linguistic pattern English as a language is used in several countries and is widely studies.
English language is used as an official language “Lingua Franca”. It is the language fro unification. In primary and junior secondary education, it is used to teach other subjects and to pass information from the teacher to the student. (from new encyclopedia Britannia vol 4 p. 500 2005) English language has flexibility of education functions. This means that one word can function as various parts of speech in different contexts like in verb, noun, adjective and give different meanings.
Anibueze (2009) views English language from the stand point that educational pre-requisite for advancement and career success in the country. It means a lot in the life and progress of a student, as it is a key subject with profound influence in all the other school subjects.
According to Ozohili (2007), poisted that English language has an important role because it is concerned with those abilities of speaking, listening, reading and writing that are required for learning in all areas of life. Integrated science is the combination of subjects like chemistry, biology and physics, therefore from all indication occupying very important position in junior secondary education. Any amount of financial resources spent on their research, verification, experimentation, drills, observation and study to improve effectiveness and productivity seem to be investment in the right direction. English language and integrated science occupies a special position in the junior secondary school curriculum. The central focus of learning English language and integrated science is to produce skillful and science oriented individuals who will have a good knowledge and methodology. On the other hand, the blames for poor academics achievement of the student should be opportuned to both principals, teachers and government agencies.
Akabogu and Ndu (1992), puts the blame on the teachers, principals, students and government agencies for low academic achievement of junior secondary school students in the junior secondary examination certificate in the area of English language and Integrated science.
Again Ukeje, Akabogu and Ndu (1992) views student low academic achievement in junior secondary and primary school thus “A large number of principals of junior secondary school and headmistresses of primary school has become absentee school administrations. The classroom teachers consequently have generally abandoned their teaching responsibilities. Lack of instructional materials like textbooks, computer, charts, apparatus for experiments etc. implies failure to the students. For English language and Integrated science which is taught in junior secondary school to be functional, it requires enough qualifies teachers and adequate teaching aids for teaching. Therefore, laboratory contributes immensely to the academic performance of students in integrated science students achieves more when they receive education that will train their entire body. The classroom work takes cares of the intellectual aspect of the students and practicals brings out what they have done in full. Therefore, in the school system, it is necessary to ensure that all the variable relating to junior secondary school student academic performance in certificate in English language and Integrated science are positively oriented so as to bring out the highest performance in their result.
Statement of Problems
The problem of this study is ascertaining the relationship between junior secondary school students academic achievement in certificate English language and Integrated science between 2006 to 2009. English language and Integrated science are the core subjects in Junior secondary schools as English is a language of communication and used to teach any other subjects, like wise integrated science as a key subject to all science courses is known to be a very useful tool technology advancement.
Unfortunately, students are no longer interested in the study of science. It appears that this is a big decline of interests in the study of science subjects especially in our junior secondary schools. With this considerable decline in interest in the sciences, the technological development will continue to lure the country in spite of abundant resources at our disposal. A great need therefore is no how to rule off there wrong attitude and stimulate our young scientists. Students in the junior level are meant to understand these science subjects as unified whole and this application of knowledge of integrated science as a subject in our junior secondary schools.
According to Maduabum (1989) in Ene (1991) includes:
1. Lack of appropriate training of teachers.
2. Lack of adequate number of qualified integrated science teachers.
3. Inadequate or total absence of laboratory facilities
4. Insufficient time spent on teaching and learning of integrated science.
According to Anbuese (2007) the problem of English language include:
a. Inadequate of teaching aids or instructional materials.
b. Lack of appropriate background knowledge of English language by student.
c. Lack of development of listening and speaking skills.
In other to test what Maduabum and Anibueze wrote, the researchers tried to carryout this research in Udi Local Government Area to find out if these enumerated points are also the problems encountered by students in learning English language and Integrated science in Udi Local Government Area.
Other problem the researcher think that is against learning of English language and Integrated science are inadequate of integrated science and English language textbook. The inappropriateness of the methods used by the teacher. All these have contributed to poor performance in English language and Integrated science.
It is for these reasons that the researchers planned to find out or rather look into the relationship between junior secondary school students academic achievement in certificate English language and Integrated science from 2006 to 2009 in Udi Local Government Area of Enugu State.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between junior secondary school students academic achievement in their certificate English language and Integrated science, to find out
1. The relationship between students performance and their achievement in English language and Integrated science.
2. The overall performance of students in junior secondary school certificate examination in English language and Integrated in the selected schools in Udi Local Government Area from 2006 to 2009.
3. The level of performance in English langue and Integrated science in junior secondary school examination in Udi Local Government Area.
4. The high quantity pass (HQP) and low quality pass (LQP) over the year of the study.
5. If the academic performance of junior secondary school certificate Examination in English language and Integrated science is improving or declining in term of quality pass (TQP) and failure (F9).
6. Differences in academic performance of schools in English language and Integrated science in the term of school type.
Significance of the Study
This refers to the members that will benefit from the study like the students, teachers, Government and curriculum planners.
The result obtained from this research work will help teachers of English language and Integrated science to have better insight into student’s area of difficulties and problem inherent in the learning of English language and Integrated science and will ultimately find solutions to it.
The result of the work will also show that Government and curriculum planner the level of performance in junior secondary certificate, so also the inspector will be aware of the level of performance. It will also enable them know the qualification of teachers in the field and to make any possible change when necessary.
Finally, if decline in performance is detected suggestions will be proffered towards assisting students to change their habits and overall attitude towards the study of English language and Integrated science. This study will provide the students with knowledge in the live of performance and there encourage them to work harder if performance is low.
Scope of Study
The scope of the study is delimited in the relationship between junior secondary school student’s academic achievement in certificate English language and Integrated science from 2006 to 2009 in Udi Local Government Area.
1. What is the relationship between students academic achievement in English language and Integrated science in junior secondary certificate examination?
2. What has been the overall academic performance of students in junior secondary school certificate examination in English language and Integrated science in Udi Local Government Area from 2006 to 2009?
3. What has been the level of Academic performance in English language and Integrated science in junior secondary school certificate examination in Udi Local Government Area in 2006 to 2009?
4. Are the performance in junior secondary school certificate examination improving or declining in terms of quality pass (TQP) and failure (F9)?
5. What are the change in high quality pass (HQP), and low quality pass (LQP) and failures (F9)?
6. Are there difference in the Academic Performances of schools in terms of Gender?
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