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ASSESSING INFLUENCE OF SCHOOL-BASED MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE ON BASIC EDUCATION GOAL ACHIEVEMENT
- Background of the study
Child labor is an important global issue associated with poverty, inadequate educational opportunities, gender inequality, and a range of health risks.1 Child labor is defined by the relevant international conventions (UNICEF’s Convention on the Rights of the Child,2 International Labor Organization [ILO] Convention 138,3 and especially, 1824) not by the activities performed by the child, but by the consequences of such activities (exceptions are the so-called unconditional worst forms of child labor such as prostitution and bondage, as noted in ILO Convention 182). For instance, work affecting a child’s health and schooling should, according to these conventions, be eliminated.5 Identifying the health effects of child labor is essential because it enables policymakers to decide which types of child labor to target for eradication.
The ILO estimates that there are approximately 250 million child laborers worldwide, with at least 120 million of them working under circumstances that have denied them a childhood and in conditions that jeopardize their health and even their lives. Most working children are ages 11 to 14 years old, but as many as 60 million are between the ages of 5 and 11.6 Although the exact numbers are not known, available statistics indicate that approximately 96% of child workers reside in developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America; there are also pockets of child labor in many industrialized countries.5,7,8 In spite of a reported decline in child labor during the period 1995 to 2000,9 child labor remains a major concern.
Most child laborers begin working at a very young age, are malnourished, and work long hours in hazardous occupations; frequently they do not attend school. They receive very low wages or are unpaid, and their income or help is usually essential for family survival. They are mainly employed in the informal sector, with agriculture accounting for more children workers than any other sector. It is estimated that, in developing countries, at least 90% of economically active children in rural areas are employed in agriculture.10 Recent ILO statistics from 20 developing countries categorized the proportion of economically active children aged 5 to 14 years as employed in agriculture, animal husbandry, and related work at 74% (73.3% of boys and 78.8% of girls).11
Short term, the most obvious economic impact of child labor at the family level is an increase in household income. Long term, the underaccumulation of human capital caused by low school attendance and poor health is a serious negative consequence of child labor, representing a missed opportunity to enhance the productivity and future earnings capacity of the next generation.12 Child laborers grow up to be low-wage–earning adults; as a result, their offspring will also be compelled to work to supplement the family’s income. In this way, poverty and child labor is passed from generation to generation.13,14
Although child labor is recognized as a global health problem, research on its health impact on children has been limited and sometimes inconsistent. In 1998, Graitcer and Lerer published the first comprehensive review of the effect of child labor on children’s health by extrapolating data from the Global Burden of Disease Study.15 The occupational mortality rate among children matched the adult occupational mortality rate, such that the occupational mortality rate indicates mortality associated with child labor. In another study, in 2000, Graitcer and Lerer did not find any differences in the health status of working and nonworking Egyptian children in the short run (the children were not followed to adulthood).16 A 2003 report on children’s work in Morocco,17 Yemen,18 and Guatemala,19 and a review developed under the aegis of Understanding Children’s Work Project20 provide an overview of the nature and extent of child labor, its determinants, and its consequences for the health and education of children in these countries. Several case–control and cohort studies have reported on the association of child labor, impaired growth, and malnutrition.21–26
Urban centres which have degenerated from centres of excellence to centres of squalor which are further characterized by inadequate social services, deplorable living conditions, high risk of disease outbreak, deprived land use planning, exposure to violence and other social vices.
Studies have shown that there has been an annual incremental formation of slums in Nigerian cities [1,2] Rivers State plays a major role because of its strategic economic importance to the country as the hydrocarbon hub and a centre of attraction for all and sundry. Slums formation in Nigeria are wrought with hasty urbanization, poverty, substandard urban housing stock, near non-existence of enforcement of urban development guidelines by city management authorities, lack of proper housing stock and maintenance.  asserts that slums have been theorized as collection of structures or an area encumbered by overcrowding, deterioration, unhygienic surroundings, absence of basic and essential facilities like potable water, standard educational and health facilities, drainage system, leisure centres, post office, markets and the like.
However, one sure way of coming out of this quagmire biased on town planning orientation is the application of the appropriate development control tools by the relevant authorities, especially the local planning authorities. These planning authorities when established will be saddled with the responsibility of enhancing the quality of the environment, improve the conditions of the housing stock, encourage ordered development and improve live-ability within the cityscape. Notwithstanding the strategic importance of the application of these development control measures in the balancing of the physical environment, there exist other factors encumbering the effectiveness of this notion and thus made the entire process a mirage and a mismatch to the capacity of development control process to city growth management.
- Statement of the problem
There may have been previous researches in this subject. This work gives further explanations and analysis in assessing influence of school-based management committee on basic education goal achievement
- Objectives of the study
- To understand the impact of school-based management committee on basic education goal achievement.
- To understand the relationship between school-based management committee and basic education goal achievement.
- Research questions
- What is the impact of school-based management committee on basic education goal achievement.
- What is the relationship between school-based management committee and basic education goal achievement.
- Research hypothesis
H0: There is no relationship between school-based management committee and basic education goal achievement.
H1: There is a relationship between school-based management committee and basic education goal achievement.
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