Academic Research

THE EXTENT OF USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING-LEARNING OF BIOLOGY IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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THE EXTENT OF USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING-LEARNING OF BIOLOGY IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

ABSTRACT

This work investigated the effective use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of Biology.  The study aimed at determining the extent of the use of instructional materials or reportage of the problems associated with the use of instructional materials and the government effort on the use of instructional materials.

The project work consisted of five major chapters starting with the introduction which covered the introduction, statement of problems, objective of study, research question, hypotheses etc.  Relevant literature consisting of meaning, classification, functions and availability of instructional materials.

Analysis of data with the help on descriptive and inferential statistical tools showed that instructional materials are not required and not well taken care of.  However, when these materials go bad, they are either dumped, discarded, or managed the way it is. The researchers therefore recommend that a more provision of adequate funds for acquisition and maintenance of instructional materials for teaching and learning of Biology and that government should pay more attention to the need for relevant instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of Biology.           It also recommended that in-house training, seminar and workshop on the use of instruction materials should be frequently organized by governments or schools to promote the use of instructional materials in effective teaching and learning.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                               i

Approval Page                                                                       ii

Dedication                                                                    iii

Acknowledgement                                                                iv

Abstract                                                                                  v

Table of contents                                                                  vi

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the Study                                            1

1.2    Statement of Problem                                                3

1.3    Purpose of the Study                                                  5

1.4    Significance of the Study                                            5

1.5    Research Questions                                                     6

1.6    Scope of the study                                                      7

1.7    Definition of terms                                                      8

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CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1    Meaning of instructional materials                                    9

2.2    Classification of instructional materials                          10

2.3    Function of instructional materials                                  14

2.4    Availability of instructional materials.                   18

CHAPTER THREE

3.1    Research Design                                                        21

3.2    Area of Study                                                                      21

3.3    Population                                                                 22

3.4    Sample and Sample Techniques                              22

3.5    Instrument for Data Collection                                         23

3.6    Validation of Instrument                                                    23

3.7    Reliability of the Instrument                                             24

3.8    Method of data Collection                                                24

3.9    Method of data analysis                                                    25

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CHAPTER FOUR

PRESENTATION OF DATA

4.1    Research Question One                                              26

4.2    Research Question Two                                              29

4.3    Research Question Three                                           33

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

5.1    Summary of Findings                                         36

5.2    Conclusion                                                                    37

5.3    Recommendations                                                       38

5.4    Suggestion for further research                                 39

References                                                                    40

Appendices                                                                  44

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the Study

The word biology is derived from the greek words /bios/ meaning /life/ and /logos/ meaning /study/ and is defined as the science of life and living organisms. An organism is a living entity consisting of one cell e.g. bacteria, or several cells e.g. animals, plants and fungi.

Aspects of biological science range from the study of molecular mechanisms in cells, to the classification and behaviour of organisms, how species evolve and interaction between ecosystems.

Biology often overlaps with other sciences; for example, biochemistry and toxicology with biology, chemistry, and medicine; biophysics with biology and physics; stratigraphy with biology and geography; astrobiology with biology and astronomy. Social sciences such as geography, philosophy, psychology and sociology can also interact with biology, for example, in administration of biological resources, developmental biology, biogeography, evolutionary psychology and ethics.

To enhance an effective teaching and learning of Biology, teachers should apply the desirable methodology in teaching Biology especially the use of instructional materials, just as Ezeugwu (2009) noted that no subject area which does not make use of instructional materials.  These materials enhance learning concepts and events in less time than mere verbalization by involving all the senses.  Obanya (1989) view instructional materials as a didactic materials – things which is supposed to make teaching and learning possible.

1.2    Statement of Problem

A close look at schools around its today goes to prove a popular opinion or view that the majority of teachers do not use instructional materials effectively for teaching and learning of Biology. Tahir (2002) admitted that there is a general lack of instructional materials.  Ekpo (2004) aptly declared that instructional materials are often used to compensate for the inadequacies of sense organ or to reinforce the capacity of the dominant organs.  They must be relevance for the realization of the intensive of curriculum.  Thus there is a short fall in the availability of instructional materials and teachers are unable to improvise with what is available in our environment in other to effectively derive home the lesson thought.  Therefore, the inadequacies of sense organs are not compensated.  Oforah (2009) state that the outcome of committee of STAN were pupils textbooks, teachers guides etc while Tauari (1998) states that the commission for now can only supply exercise books, chalks and such minor things.  Instructional materials are grossly inadequate for effective teaching and learning.  Furthermore, Tyler (1950) in his opinion explained  that Biology Department should have a well organized instructional material corner, units or room where some of the following could be found.  Verbal symbols (oral or written), recordings, visual symbols for stimulating interest, realia the real thing or authentic materials Dale (1959), Television, it made educational experiences which are beyond the reach of the classroom available to the students.  

1.3    Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study are to:

1       Determine the extent of the use of instructional materials in effective teaching and learning of Biology.

2       Identify the problems associated with the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of Biology.

3       Enlighten people on the use of instructional materials in effective teaching and learning of Biology.

1.4    Significance of the Study    

This study will be of significance to the following:

  1. It will serve as a reference point on the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of Biology.
  2. The study will bring awareness to the government curriculum planners and other stakeholders in the area on the necessity in provision of adequate instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of Biology.
  3. It will make educational experience which are beyond the reach of classroom available to student of Biology.
  4. It will provide a guide to the appropriate use of instructional materials in effective teaching and learning of Biology.
  5. The study will also create awareness on the benefit of the use of instructional materials in effective teaching and learning of Biology.
    1. Research Questions
  6. To what extent is the use of instructional materials effective for teaching and learning of Biology?
  7. What are the problems that are associated with the use of instructional materials in the effective teaching and learning of Biology?
  8. How much awareness is being created for the people on the use of instructional materials in effective teaching and learning of Biology?

1.6    Scope of the Study

          Few selected schools in Awgu Local Government area were studied.  This will be made up of combination of government owned schools.  The names of the government owned schools includes: C.S.S. Mmaku, Rosary High School Awgu and Boys Secondary School Awgu.  While the private owned schools includes: Presentation secondary school Awgu and Alpha secondary school Awgu.  This scope of study are selected/chosen so as to help solve financial limitation/problems.

1.7    Definition of Terms

Conceptual And Operational Definition

Instructional materials – conceptual – Teaching aids which can also be referred to as instructional aids, teaching materials which appeal to all sense and felling and aid learning.

Operational – Course of study, syllabus, curriculum, bulletins, guides, handbooks, research reports, audio visual aids and other materials which serve as a teacher’s educational function.

Biology  – Conceptual – An interdisciplinary field of study which help families and individuals to understand and adopt to the social economics, culture and technological changes.

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