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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A D.C TO A.C INVERTER SYSTEM
Power inverter is a device that converts DC power (also known as direct current), to standard AC power (alternating current). Inverters are used to operate electrical equipment from the power produced by a car or boat battery or renewable energy sources, like solar panels or wind turbines. DC power is what batteries store, while AC power is what most electrical appliances need to run so an inverter is necessary to convert the power into a usable form.
It is designed to meet up with the power demand in the offices and in homes in the absence of power supply from the national supply authority, NEPA. In order words the device / item serves as a substitute for NEPA which almost monopolises the power supply to people.
The level of the needed input voltage depends entirely on the design and purpose of the inverter. In many smaller consumer and commercial inverters a 12V DC input is popular because of the wide availability of powerful rechargeable 12V lead acid batteries which can be used as the DC power source
It is designed in such a way that it will take up 12v DC from battery and inverts it to an output of 220v, 50H2 AC. It makes no noise during operation and no hazardous carbon monoxide is generated in the surrounding. And this inverter delivers a power of 1KVA to a load, and for this reason it emits high current and requires thick wiring.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Content
1.1 Objective of the project
1.2 Significance of the project
1.3 limitation of the project
1.4 Application of the project
1.5 Inverter rating
1.6 Why choose a modified sine wave inverter?
1.7 Types of inverter
1.8 Important Consideration For Inverters
2.0 Literature review
2.1 Review of history of an inverter
2.2 Review of how to choosing the right inverter
2.3 Review of the difference between sine wave and modified sine wave inverter.
2.4 Review of inverter capacity
2.5 Safety of inverter
3.1 Basic designs of an inverter
3.2 Block diagram of the system
3.3 system operation
3.4 circuit diagram
3.5 circuit description
3.6 Description of components used
3.7 How to Choose A Right Inverter And Battery
3.8 How to choose the best inverter battery
4.0 Construction Procedure and Testing
4.1 Casing and Packaging
4.2 Assembling of Sections
4.3 Testing of System Operation
4.4 Cost Analysis
A power inverter is a device that converts DC power (also known as direct current), to standard AC power (alternating current). Inverters are used to operate electrical equipment from the power produced by a car or boat battery or renewable energy sources, like solar panels or wind turbines. DC power is what batteries store, while AC power is what most electrical appliances need to run so an inverter is necessary to convert the power into a usable form. For example, when a cell phone is plugged into a car cigarette lighter to recharge, it supplies DC power; this must be converted to the required AC power by a power inverter to charge the phone.
In modified sine wave, The waveform in commercially available modified-sine-wave inverters is a square wave with a pause before the polarity transition, which only needs to cycle through a three-position switch that outputs forward, off, and reverse output at the pre-determined frequency. The peak voltage to RMS voltage does not maintain the same relationship as for a sine wave. The DC bus voltage may be actively regulated or the “on” and “off” times can be modified to maintain the same RMS value output up to the DC bus voltage to compensate for DC bus voltage variation.
The ratio of on to off time can be adjusted to vary the RMS voltage while maintaining a constant frequency with a technique called PWM. Harmonic spectrum in the output depends on the width of the pulses and the modulation frequency. When operating induction motors, voltage harmonics is not of great concern, however harmonic distortion in the current waveform introduces additional heating, and can produce pulsating torques.
Most AC motors will run on MSW inverters with an efficiency reduction of about 20% due to the harmonic content….READ MORE
1.1 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
This inverter is capable of operating a wide variety of loads; electronic and household items including but not limited to TV, VCR, and satellite receiver, computers, and printers.
The objective of this project is to design and construct a modified sine wave inverter which is rated 1KW which can be powered from the source of 12V battery…READ MORE
1.2 LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT
This device is a modified sine wave inverter, which is designed to be powered with 12v battery. It will work effectively and produce direct current only when the battery is charged.
It is a 2.4 kva inverter which means that load equal or above the power rating should for no reason loaded to this device in order to avoid overload which can result system breakdown. Initially you need to shell out a lot of money for buying an inverter.
1.3 APPLICATION OF THE PROJECT
This study exposes me the applications and uses of a modified sine wave inverter which are as follows:
DC power source utilization
Inverter designed to provide 240 VAC from the 12 VDC source provided in an automobile.
An inverter converts the DC electricity from sources such as batteries, solar panels, or fuel cells to AC electricity. The electricity can be at any required voltage; in particular it can operate AC equipment designed for mains operation, or rectified to produce DC at any desired voltage.
Uninterruptible power supplies
An uninterruptible power supply (UPS) uses batteries and an inverter to supply AC power when main power is not available. When main power is restored, a rectifier supplies DC power to recharge the batteries.
Modified Sine wave Inverters convert low frequency main AC power to higher frequency for use in induction heating. To do this, AC power is first rectified to provide DC power. The inverter then changes the DC power to high frequency AC power.
HVDC power transmission
With HVDC power transmission, AC power is rectified and high voltage DC power is transmitted to another location. At the receiving location, an inverter in a static inverter plant converts the power back to AC. The inverter must be synchronized with grid frequency and phase and minimize harmonic generation.
A variable-frequency drive controls the operating speed of an AC motor by controlling the frequency and voltage of the power supplied to the motor. An inverter provides the controlled power. In most cases, the variable-frequency drive includes a rectifier so that DC power for the inverter can be provided from main AC power. Since an inverter is the key component, variable-frequency drives are sometimes called inverter drives or just inverters.
VFDs that operate directly from an AC source without first converting it to DC are called cyclo-converters. They are now commonly used on large ships to drive the propulsion motors.
Electric vehicle drives
Adjustable speed motor control inverters are currently used to power the traction motors in some electric and diesel-electric rail vehicles as well as some battery electric vehicles and hybrid electric highway vehicles such as the Toyota Prius, BYD e6 and Fisker Karma. Various improvements in inverter technology are being developed specifically for electric vehicle applications.In vehicles with regenerative braking, the inverter also takes power from the motor (now acting as a generator) and stores it in the batteries.
An inverter air conditioner uses a variable-frequency drive to control the speed of the motor and thus the compressor.
Electroshock weapons and tasters have a DC/AC inverter to generate several tens of thousands of V AC out of a small 9 V DC battery. First the 9VDC is converted to 400–2000V AC with a compact high frequency transformer, which is then rectified and temporarily stored in a high voltage capacitor until a pre-set threshold voltage is reached. When the threshold (set by way of an air gap or TRIAC) is reached, the capacitor dumps its entire load into a pulse transformer which then steps it up to its final output voltage of 20–60 kV. A variant of the principle is also used in electronic flash and bug zappers, though they rely on a capacitor-based voltage multiplier to achieve their high voltage.
1.4 INVERTER RATINGS
The ratings that you should look at when buying an inverter (depending on the type) are:
Continuous Rating: This is the amount of power you could expect to use continuously without the inverter overheating and shutting down.
Half Hour Rating: This is handy as the continuous rating may be too low to run a high energy consumption power tool or appliance, however if the appliance was only to be used occasionally then the half hour rating may well suffice.
Surge Rating: A high surge is required to start some appliances and once running they may need considerably less power to keep functioning. The inverter must be able to hold its surge rating for at least 5 seconds. TVs and refrigerators are examples of items that require only relatively low power once running, but require a high surge to start.
IP rating – defines the ability of the inverter seals to prevent water and dust ingress. Although some inverter manufacturers claim high IP ratings suitable for outdoor installation, the quality and location of the seals and ventilation will greatly affect the ability of the inverter to outlast the many years solar installations are expected to work.
Peak efficiency – represents the highest efficiency that the inverter can achieve.
1.5 WHY CHOOSE A MODIFIED SINE WAVE INVERTER?
For running typical resistive loads like lights and appliances, a modified sine wave inverter is a reliable, cost-effective choice. Though modified sine wave inverters do not produce a perfect replica of AC true sine wave power, they do provide an affordable option that for many mobile power applications is perfectly adequate. Some devices, however, may not recognize the modified sine wave and may run poorly or not at all. The solution to these issues is to purchase a Go Power! pure sine wave inverter. For most applications though, a Go Power modified sine wave inverter is a reliable and cost-effective mobile-power solution. See our Inverter Comparison for details.
Some of our most popular modified sine wave inverters are from our Heavy-Duty line up. These are excellent solutions for fleet, utility trucks and vans looking for a powerful and economical alternative to a pure sine wave product.
1.6 TYPES OF INVERTER
There are different types of inverters for home and industries available which can suit your various electricity needs. Following are the two basic types of inverters.
Modified Sine Wave Inverters
This type of home inverter obtains power from a battery of 12 volts and must be recharged using a generator or a solar panel. Appliances like microwave ovens, light bulbs, etc. Can be run using these types of inverter.
They can be rightly held as the best inverters for homes as they are efficient enough to provide power to the normal home requirement.
They are the home inverters that are most affordable too.
You can run the daily used home appliances using the modified sine wave home inverters.
The electric appliances that involve motor speed controls or timers are not to be run using these types of home inverters.
The wave form of a modified sine wave inverter is as below:
2. True sine wave inverters
This is one of the better types of inverters as they provide better power as compared to the modified sine wave inverters for homes. These types of home inverter are also run using a battery of a larger capacity.
Technically speaking, the sine waves they produce are purer, thus the efficiency.
They are best inverters employed for the power sensitive appliances like refrigerators, televisions, air conditioners, washing machines, etc.
These types of inverters are extremely reliable. The only drawback is that they are a bit expensive and cannot be afforded by the common man.
There are various models available based on the electricity requirement of the house.
The wave form of a sine wave inverter is as below:
3. Square wave inverter
This is the simplest form of output wave available in the cheapest form of inverters. They can run simple appliances without problem but much else. Square wave voltage can be easily generated using a simple oscillator. With the help of a transformer, the generated square wave voltage can be transformed into a value of 240VAC or higher.
The wave form of a square wave inverter is a below:
1.8 IMPORTANT CONSIDERATION FOR INVERTERS
Before going into construction of an inverter, students must know the following:
The AC output frequency of a power inverter device is usually the same as standard power line frequency, 50 or 60 hertz
If the output of the device or circuit is to be further conditioned (for example stepped up) then the frequency may be much higher for good transformer efficiency.
The AC output voltage of a power inverter is often regulated to be the same as the grid line voltage, typically 240 VAC, even when there are changes in the load that the inverter is driving. This allows the inverter to power numerous devices designed for standard line power.
Some inverters also allow selectable or continuously variable output voltages.
A power inverter will often have an overall power rating expressed in watts or kilowatts. This describes the power that will be available to the device the inverter is driving and, indirectly, the power that will be needed from the DC source. Smaller popular consumer and commercial devices designed to mimic line power typically range from 150 to 3000 watts.
Not all inverter applications are solely or primarily concerned with power delivery; in some cases the frequency and or waveform properties are used by the follow-on circuit or device.
The runtime of an inverter is dependent on the battery power and the amount of power being drawn from the inverter at a given time. As the amount of equipment using the inverter increases, the runtime will decrease. In order to prolong the runtime of an inverter, additional batteries can be added to the inverter.
When attempting to add more batteries to an inverter, there are two basic options for installation: Series Configuration and Parallel Configuration.
If the goal is to increase the overall voltage of the inverter, one can daisy chain batteries in a Series Configuration. In a Series Configuration, if a single battery dies, the other batteries will not be able to power the load.
If the goal is to increase capacity and prolong the runtime of the inverter, batteries can be connected in parallel. This increases the overall Ampere-hour(Ah) rating of the battery set.
If a single battery is discharged though, the other batteries will then discharge through it. This can lead to rapid discharge of the entire pack, or even an over-current and possible fire. To avoid this, large paralleled batteries may be connected via diodes or intelligent monitoring with automatic switching to isolate an under-voltage battery from the others
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