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FACTORS INFLUENCING TEACHERS EFFECTIVENESS IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA.
Background to the study
Teachers’ role in any educational system cannot be over-emphasized. Teachers are the executors and implementers of the educational policies and curriculum.
Hence whether there are loopholes in the educational processes and outcome, teachers tend to receive more blame for these shortcomings than any other agent connected with educational activities.
Adesina (2014) recognized teachers as the heart of Nigeria’s educational system at all levels. The teachers continue to be the major determinants of quality of education, be it at primary, secondary or tertiary level. The revised National Policy on Education (1998) confirms that, “No educational system can rise above the quality of its teachers”
Similarly, the National Curriculum Association conference held in 1969 described the teacher as the “Keyman in the entire educational programme”. The implication of the foregoing for educational policy makers in particular and the society at large is that, adequate attention should be paid to teachers’ welfare in all its ramifications. This should be the case as point out by Edem (1987):
The curriculum however well developed and however properly interpreted, will come for short of our hopes unless it is applied by teachers who are themselves the product of its philosophy.
In a situation where teachers are left to their fate to face the rigours of academic and in some cases administration work, there is the high tendency that they would decline both in efficiency and effectiveness. Worst still, inspite of these rigours they are being poorly motivated in terms of salary remunerations. According to Borton (2011) “Education is not just for personal survival or to increase one’s income or power over others, but it is for enriching one’s life for personal growth beyond survival and income”. While agreeing with his view, the question is will it also be justifiable for teachers to use their meager income for the provision of school facilities, materials and equipment needed for effective school work to progress? If the answer to this question is positive, according to Byme (1981) there is a danger that the teacher will lose his initial keenness in teaching for something better.
Moreover, the nature of teachers earns them the regards as experts who know more than their students. This may involve answering questions, correcting or validating the students’ work or what they have said. For the teacher to remain as an expert, there must be a continuous in-service training programme for him and the urge to expand his breadth of understanding.
In a situation where there is little or no in-service training programmes and other opportunities for the teachers to widen their knowledge, it is obvious that they will become incompetent. This is further buttressed by Wilbert (2008) when he said that the teacher’s ability to remain well informed on new developments in his ability to make creative and critical judgments concerning the main trends in his field bear directly upon his competence as an expert. In other words, if teachers are behind time and obsolete in their disciplines, their effectiveness becomes questionable.
Education is very important for every nation of the world. It is important because the transmission of cultural heritage and technological advancement of any nation depends on it. In recognition of the importance of education, every nation including Nigeria earmarks huge budgetary allocations for it yearly (Nwosu, 2008). Similarly, parents and guardians spend huge amount of money yearly to finance their children’s/wards’ education. They see the education of their children or wards as a worthwhile investment for future social and economic security of their families. Parents and guardians usually expect accountability from the schools to which they pay huge school fees for the education of their children. In other words, the school proprietors have to justify the money they collect from parents as school fees by ensuring that effective teaching and learning take place in their schools, otherwise, they may risk low patronage as parents may withdraw their children to better schools.
To account for the school fees collected and to maintain appreciable number of students in their schools, the school proprietors strive to provide enabling environment for effective teaching and learning to thrive. A high quality assurance in schools entails providing most of the factors that enhance effective teaching and learning which ultimately affect students’ academic achievement. These factors as enumerated by Postlethwaite (2007) include but not limited to teacher-variables, environment/family-variables and school-variables. Of all these factors, the ones that are touted to exact most influence on the learning outcome are the “teacher-variables” as the teacher is the ultimate implementer of the curriculum (Postlethwaite, 2007). One of the teacher-variables which contributes immensely to enhance students’ academic achievement is the teaching (teacher) effectiveness. Effective teaching is a term synonymous with teaching (teacher) effectiveness and was defined by Afe (2003) as the type of teaching characterized by the exhibition of intellectual, social and emotional stability, love for children and positive disposition towards the teaching profession and ability to inspire good qualities in students. It was also defined by Vogt (1984) as the ability of instruction to inspire students of different abilities while incorporating instructional objectives and assessing the effective learning mode of the students. According to Evans (2006) teaching effectiveness is a measure of the extent of realization of the instructional objectives. It is a net growth in intellectual aptitude and skills as measured by students’ achievements. Sanders’ (1999) and Wenglinsky’s (2000) work asserted that teacher effectiveness is the single biggest contributor to students’ success. Teacher effectiveness outweighs other factors which influence students’ performance such as class size, gender and socio-economic background of the students.
Statement of the problem
Teachers ineffective in the schools system could be as a result of the factors such as the lack of instructional materials, inadequate fund, lack of teachers motivation, inadequate qualified teacher which equally brings about poor academic performance of the students and others problem in the schools system like teachers laziness, stress and high tension when teachers are not well motivated, contribute to effective teaching, and if it can be eliminated, then we can have what we called effective teaching in public secondary schools in Ekiti State.
Objective of the Study
The general objective of this study is to find out the factors influencing teachers effectiveness in public secondary schools in IKERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EKITI STATE
The specific objectives of the study were to:
The major factors that influencing teachers’ effectiveness in Public secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area
Determine if teachers qualification affect teachers effectiveness in public secondary schools
Investigate if teachers method of teaching have effect on teachers effectiveness
Investigate if teachers attitude affect teachers effectiveness in public secondary school
To suggest the strategies to improve teachers’ effectiveness schools
What were the major factors that influencing teachers’ effectiveness in Public secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area
Does teachers qualification affect teachers effectiveness in public secondary schools
Does teachers method of teaching have effect on teachers effectiveness
To what extend does teachers attitude affect teachers effectiveness in public secondary schools
What should be suggested/ done to improve teachers’ effectiveness schools
The following research hypothesis were foumulated to guide the study
Factors that influence teachers effectiveness in teaching does not have significant effect on their performance in schools
Teachers qualification does not have significant different on teachers effectiveness in schools
Significance of the Study
The significance of the study will be of benefit and useful to the students, teachers, corporate union, and government who have desire to invest in secondary schools. Among the benefits to the benefactors above are as follow
1. If there is teachers effectiveness in the classroom, it will bring about the student effective academic performance
2. If those factors influencing teacher effectiveness such as regular salary, motivation, trainings etc are properly attempt to, then teachers will be of immense benefit.
3. It will be of benefit to the government in order to know the factors influencing teachers effectiveness in the classroom.
4. It will be of benefit to the corporate union in order to apply the knowledge obtainable to acquainted with secondary schools system
Scope of the Study
The scope of the study covers the factors influencing teachers effectiveness in public secondary schools in Nigeria. The study will covers five public secondary schools in IKERE LOCAL GOVERNMENT.
Limitation of the Study
The researcher comes across unwillingness of a few respondents to fill in the questionnaire and return on time. However, the researcher selected enumerators and repeatedly persuade the respondents to genuinely participate in responding to items at the time of data collection. The study was limited to identify financial and material resources.
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