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EFFECT OF THE USE OF AUDIO AND VISUAL AID IN TEACHING CHEMISTRY IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN LAGOS STATE
1.1 Background of the study
Education, according to Coombs (1970) consists of two components. He classified these two components into inputs and outputs. According to him, inputs consist of human and material resources and outputs are the goals and outcomes of the educational process.Both the inputs and outputs form a dynamic organic whole and if one wants to investigate and assess the educational system in order to improve its performance, effects of one component on the other must be examined.
Instructional resources which are educational inputs are of vital importance to the teaching of any subject in the school curriculum. Wales (1975) was of the opinion that the use of instructional resources would make discovered facts glued firmly to the memory of students. Savoury (1958) also added that, a well planned and imaginative use of visual aids in lessons should do much to banish aparthy, supplement inadequacy of books as well as arouse students interest by giving them something practical to see and do, and at the same time helping to train them to think things out themselves. Savoury (1958) suggested a catalogue of useful visual aids that are good for teaching history i.e pictures, post cards, diagrams, maps, filmstrips and models.
He said that selection of materials which are related to the basic contents of a course or a lesson, helps indepth understanding of such a lesson by the students in that they make the lesson attractive to them, thereby arresting their attention and thus, motivating them to learn. He suggested a catalogue of aids which could be used to teach history. He advocated the use of pictures which will help children in grounding their thoughts and feelings. He said that pictures are used as alternatives to real objects where it is impossible to show students the real objects, and they do serve effectively in tan imagined activities.
It is also very vital to have sufficient and adequate human resources in terms of teacher quality for the teaching of all subjects in the school curriculum. Without the teachers as implementing factors, the goals of education can never be achieved. In order to achieve a just and egalitarian society as spelt out in the Nigerian National Policy of Education (1981), schools should be properly and uniformly equipped to promote sound and effective teaching. Suitable textbooks, qualified teachers, libraries which are adequate should also be provided for schools. Scarcity of these, according to Coombs (1970), will constraint educational system from responding more fully to new demands. In order to raise the quality of education, its efficiency and productivity, better learning materials are needed. Knezewich (1975) also stressed the importance of having appropriate personnel plan and adequate physical facilities to support educational effort.
1.2 Statement of problem
Most students find studying chemistry boring. To many, chemistry is an abstract subject that involves more effort to learn. It is assumed that the use of audio visuals will improve on the learning experience of students.
1.3 Objective of the study
1. To introduce audio visuals in learning and teaching resources for chemistry.
2. To introduce strategies for effective audio visual resources teaching and learning development especially in field of chemistry.
3. To provide guidance on how audio visual resources can be effectively used with examples of good practice.
4. Also, the purpose of learning and teaching using audio visual resources is to provide a source of learning experiences for students.
5. To find out if there can be differences in the scores, on the test of chemistry, of students in schools with adequate supply of qualified chemistry teachers who use audio visual aids and the scores of students in schools with inadequate supply of qualified teachers and who do not use audio visual aids.
6. To find out if there can be differences in the scores, on the test of chemistry, of students in schools with adequate audio visual material resources in chemistry and scores of student in schools with inadequate audio visual material resources in chemistry.
1.4 Research questions
1. Is possible to introduce functions and types of learning and teaching resources for chemistry?
2. What are the strategies introduced for effective resources development especially in field of chemistry?
3. How can this study provide guidance on how resources like textbook can be effectively used with examples of good practice?
4. Is the purpose of learning and teaching resources is to provide a source of learning experiences for students?
5. How can one find out if there can be differences in the scores, on the test of chemistry, of students in schools with adequate supply of qualified chemistry teachers and the scores of students in schools with inadequate supply of qualified teachers?
1.5 Research hypotheses
In order to identify the variables and to accomplish the purpose of this study, the following hypotheses were tested.
H0: There is no significant difference in the scores, on the test of chemistry, of students in schools with adequate supply of qualified chemistry teachers and the scores of students in schools with inadequate supply of qualified teachers.
H1: There is a significant difference in the scores, on the test of chemistry of students in schools with adequate resources and the scores of students in schools with inadequate material resources.
1.6 Significance of the study
The major concern of the study is teaching resources and effective teaching
and learning of chemistry in the Junior secondary school usingselected Junior secondary schools in Ogbomoso North and Central Local Government areas of Oyo as a case study. This study should lend to awareness of studying problems of student of the school and prefer corrective measures. It is hoped that the students would be made to realize that learning involves skills perhaps better understanding of what learning is, may shape a learning attitude towards his fellow friends, schools, parents also provide knowledge and general interest for further studies in this area to the need to examine the learning comprehension skills of students with a view to identify the factors responsible for their academic performance. The study is also aimed at making the government realize that their efforts to improve the standard of education will continue to be a mirage if the teaching of learning among other learning skill is neglected in the school course outline. The study is delimited to the cause of poor study habits of high school student and its implication to teaching effectiveness. The investigation include the specific problem such as the profile of respondents the poor study habits of high school student: The effect of their poor study in teaching and learning process. What is the teaching could do to change or improve the student
poor study habits and any suggestion of teacher to improve the students poor study habits There are reason to consider that makes this study important to some groups of people like the teacher, school administrator the parents and education. Student this is because this investigation may give them in sight concerning the cause and effect of the poor study habits of the student to the teaching and learning process to the result of this study may be very important to teaching
not only in the public school but even those in private sector the result may give these teacher some significant ideas on what they must in case they find some student having poor study habits What teachers should do is to find out the cause of such poor study habits of the pupils and then find for the mass necessary solution to the problems. The teacher after knowing they must talked to the parents about it so their parents could suppressive their weakness on their lessons at home
similarly the result of the study may have be significant to parents because through this they may known what to do to help improve or correct the poor study habits of their student to study their lesson in the night after supper instead of watching television or playing video games. The researchers believes that students, particularly Community primary school Nkwerre will be benefited from the findings of this study since the study provides basis for awareness and better understanding of how their current study habits affected their academic performance. Likewise gives them a more focused and clear perspective on how the specific behaviours related to their studies influenced study habits. Consequently, this awareness also gives a much deeper understanding of their selves as students considering that the college life is typically beset of developmental adjustment demands. School administrators like subject area coordinators, may also be guided in the formulation of future modification of educational policies, curriculum and strategies toward a more effective delivery of learning.
Teachers will also be help in understanding better the diversity of learning of their students. As such, it is hoped that they could develop more effective methodologies in teaching their subject matter.
Guidance and Counseling Centre will also be help by this study through providing a more focused and factual knowledge on the factors affecting students study habits. This increased the understanding of the Guidance Counselors on the interplay of the variables studied in this research. Such knowledge is hoped to help the Guidance and Counseling practitioners towards the development and implementation of more effective programs in consideration of these variables. Students will be given information on how study affects their academic performance. The result of the study will make them aware of the common study habits among their co- education students.
- SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is centered on teaching resources and effective teaching and learning of business
studies in the Junior secondary school usingselected Junior secondary schools in Ogbomoso North and Central Local Government areas of Oyo as a case study.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Despite the limited scope of this study certain constraints were encountered during the research of this project. Some of the constraints experienced by the researcher were given below:
i. TIME: This was a major constraint on the researcher during the period of the work. Considering the limited time given for this study, there was not much time to give this research the needed attention.
ii. FINANCE: Owing to the financial difficulty prevalent in the country and it’s resultant prices of commodities, transportation fares, research materials etc. The researcher did not find it easy meeting all his financial obligations.
iii. INFORMATION CONSTRAINTS: Nigerian researchers have never had it easy when it comes to obtaining necessary information relevant to their area of study from private business organization and even government agencies. selected Junior secondary schools in Ogbomoso North and Central Local Government areas of Oyo as acase study. finds it difficult to reveal their internal operations. The primary information was collected through face-to-face interview getting the published materials on this topic meant going from one library to other which was not easy.
Although these problems placed limitations on the study, but it did not prevent the researcher from carrying out a detailed and comprehensive research work on the subject matter.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Main idea: The is the key or point that dominates the passage.
Word to word: Reading of every word of the passage one by one without any transition skill from one phrase to another.
Diagnosis: This is the investigation of the nature of the course and extent of the nature of the students’ strength and weakness.
Literal meaning: This involves ordinary meaning of words basic or usual meaning of a word or phrase.
Evaluation: This is the ability to read beyond the line. It involves critical assessment of the reader what he is reading.
Cognitive: Ability of knowing how to, knowing what and the ability of the reader to use experience.
Affective reading: Good reading and caring for materials.
Languages: A systematic means of conventionalized signs, sounds, gestures, or marks having understood meaning.
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• Factors- one that actively contributes to an accomplishments,results, or process
• Develop- to bring out the capabilities or possibilities of
• Study Habits- manner which you consistently use to study for school or college or even for the next day lesson.
• Students- describe as one who directs zeal at a subject. Student isused for anyone who is learning.
• Factors- these refers to anything that affects study habits
• Develop- refers to fast or gradual changes in a range of time
• Study Habits- refers to the ways of studying on a particular subject
• XU Students- referring to all officially enrolled students of Community primary school Nkwerre.
TABLE OF CONTENT:
- Background of the Study
- Statement of the Research Problem
- Objectives of the Study
- Significance of the Study
- Research Questions
- Research Hypothesis
- Conceptual and Operational Definition
- Limitations of the Study
- Sources of Literature
- The Review
- Summary of Literature Review
- Research Method
- Research Design
- Research Sample
- Measuring Instrument
- Data Collection
- Data Analysis
- Expected Result
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
- Data Analysis
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
- Recommendations for Further Study
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