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1.1              Background of the Study                             

1.2              Statement of Problem                       

1.3              Purpose of Study                                           

1.4              Significance of the Study                             

1.5              Scope of the Study               

1.6              Research Questions                           

1.7              Limitation of the Study                                 


2.0       Literature Review                 

2.1       Nature and Structure of Chemistry             

2.2       Qualified Chemistry Teachers                     

2.3       Facilities and Equipment                  

2.4       Area of Difficulties Topics in Chemistry

2.5       Causes of these Difficult Teaching Topics   

2.6       Teaching Methods                                         

2.7       Approach to the Teaching of Integrated  Sciences 


3.0       Methodology                        

3.1              Design of the Study              

3.2              Area of Study                        

3.3              Population of the Study        

3.4              Sample and Sampling Techniques    

3.5              Instrumentation                                             

3.6              Validation and Reliability                              

3.7              Administration of Instruments                                             

3.8              Methods of Data Analysis                


4.0       Analysis and Discussion                               

4.1              Research Question One                                

4.2              Findings of some difficult Teaching Topic in

Chemistry by Teachers                    

4.3              Analysis of the Results                                 


Findings, Summary and Recommendation               

5.1              Findings                                                        

5.2              Summary                                                        

5.3              Recommendation                              

5.4              Area of Further Research      



            Chapter one



Science and technology are concepts in national development which remain indelible in the mind of African and third world leaders according to Ochu and Ekezie (1974).

In Nigeria science was introduced into secondary school system as far back as (1880).

It was first taught as general science and later speared into physics, chemistry and biology. With the introduction of the core science subject, the general science came to be seen as the science subject which was suitable for the less able and it was recommended to the least science oriented and for those who do not intend to pursue science. Syllabus was therefore devised to contain basic elements of biology, chemistry and physics, which should be taught primarily to pupils in the low secondary school classes. (Anani 1977).

Although attempts were made to raise the status of general science with the introduction of a double credit O/level, yet people still questioned the rationale of mere putting together subjects. There was in the early sixties a new wave of thought about science in school rather than open into professional restricting under the conditions of normal classroom culture.

There is a hesitancy on the part of both school teachers to try out innovations in classroom teaching. Activities are rarely included in the classroom deliberation and laboratory programme are seldom organized as an opportunity of exploration. Agarkara (1998), stated that teachers learn very little from experience in the classroom on that capacity of mastering science and new technology logics. Since Iloputaife and Eze (1994) has tried to propose the following tasks.

Lip dating and improving the qualify of science teaching integrating scientific  education and human features, developing a comprehensive approach for science curricula. Focus has been put on teachers processes so as to promote the teachers understanding of scientific method and rationality but the reality of lack of resources in most countries has impeded them adjusting both the contents of their curriculum and textbooks in consequence, and the training of their chemistry teachers which often remains of very poor quality. The curriculum is inter disciplinary and it is supposed to provide the teachers to see the concept and the pedagogical principles which unify the separate subject matter thus harmonizing the knowledge derived from the integrated.

The course is supposed to provide the teachers with a broad view of science which enlightens his interactions with his environment of this mental manipulative and social skills unesco –  unicef (1971).

Essentially, chemistry is designed to develop interest in the teaching that his is encourage to pursue further student in science discipline.

Secondary school was to lay a solid foundation in the learners early study of science for further studied.

A significant proportion of Nigeria J.S.S chemistry. Teachers do not achieve as well as they should in chemistry examination, Iloputaife and Eze, (1994).


Based on the background of the study. Here, one or two problems are shown.

First, some teachers have the problems of finding some topics difficult to teach in chemistry. This was also confirmed by research evidence in Nigeria, Desai (1994) indicates low   chemistry attainments of teachers. The condition was amplified by the alarming low number of qualified teachers in chemistry area irrespective of the crucial role of chemistry Neera (1996).

Second, as a result, there are some problems in the implementation of the curriculum Olarewaju (1987), besides achievement has been shown to be very low and unimpressive Okebukola and Jegede, (1999). These might negate the philosophy behind the introduction of the chemistry core curriculum as J.S.S leave. Also Jegede (1999) and Akueailo (1998) undependably in their studied tend to show that the teaching of chemistry in Nigerian secondary school are inadequate.


The purpose oft his study is to identify the difficult teaching topics in J.S. chemistry curriculum.  

(a)                In the relation to teachings area of specialization

(b)               In relation to teachers qualification

(c)                In relation to availability of instructional materials in Enugu urban area Enugu State.


The identification of these difficult teaching topics in chemistry will enlighten the teachers as well as government and expose them to the area they specialized on. Being aware of these, difficult topics school authority, the government and even the science teachers association of Nigeria will be of great help in planning in-service course for the teachers in those areas of science. This also brings to light the need of equipping higher institutions and universities preparing chemistry teachers with adequate training needed for planning and execution of chemistry in our secondary schools.

The exposure of these difficulty topics will motivate the chemistry authors and publishers to give a details attention on these different area in their write up.

1.5       SCOPE OF STUDY

The study was restricted to identification of difficult teaching topics in junior secondary schools in Enugu urban area Enugu State.


                        The following research questions are proposed.

1.         What topics do the teachers find difficult in teaching J.S.S chemistry? 

2.         Why do teachers have difficulty in teaching those identified topics in chemistry?

3.         How can the difficulty in teaching those topics be remedied?

4.         What influence has experience on the identification of topics as difficult?

5.         What effects of qualification on finding a  teaching topics difficult?

6.         What effect has sex on findings a teaching topics difficult?

7.         What is the effect of area of specialization in identification of a topics as difficult?

8.         What in your opinion are the possible remedies the difficulty experienced?


Literature review

Chemistry is the scientific study of the interaction of chemical substances that  are  constituted  of  atoms  or  the  subatomic particles: protons,  electrons  and neurons.  It  is  an  integral  part  of  the  science  curriculum  both  at  the  Senior Secondary School as well as the institution. At this level, it is often called “general Chemistry” and is an introduction to a wide variety of fundamental concepts that enable the students to acquire tools and skills useful at the advanced levels where Chemistry is invariably studied in any of its various sub-disciplines.    Chemistry and indeed chemists are linked to everything on earth as aptly captured in a slogan: “What on earth is not Chemistry?” Chemistry plays a pivotal role in engineering, sustainable economic development and growth in any nation. Put succinctly, there is no aspect of human endeavour on natural phenomena in which Chemistry does not feature. It features prominently in the areas of oil and gas,  agriculture,  health,  environment,  solid  minerals,  textile,  cosmetics  water supply and  sanitation, crime detection, pulp and paper, and waste management among  others  (Zuru,  2009).  Chemistry  is  the  catalyst  of  sustainable  national growth and development.

Knowledge for Global Development  94    Attitudes, like academic achievement,  are  important  outcomes of science education in  secondary  school.  The  development of students’ positive attitudes regarding science as a school subject is one of the major responsibilities of every science teacher. Unfortunately, research has revealed that much of what goes on in  science  classrooms  is  not  particularly  attractive  to  students  across  all  ages (Cheung, 2009).   An attitude may be defined as a predisposition to respond in a favourable or unfavourable manner with respect to a given attitude object (Oskamp & Schulz, 2005). The focus of this paper is on school students’ attitudes towards Chemistry (both theory and laboratory classes) taught in secondary school classrooms. Thus, the  scope  of  the  present  study  was  limited  to  Chemistry  as  experienced  by students in secondary school rather than out-of-school experiences obtained from external sources such as the media, museums, field trips and friends.   Attitudes towards Chemistry or science denote interests or feelings towards studying  Chemistry  or science. It  is  the  students’  disposition  towards  liking  or ‘disliking’ science while attitudes in science mean the scientific approach assumed by  an  individual  for  solving  problems,  assessing  ideas  and  making  decisions. Student  beliefs  and  attitudes  have  the  potential  to  either  facilitate  or  inhibit learning (Yara, 2009).   Many  factors  could  contribute  to  a  student’s  attitude  toward  studying science (Chemistry).  Studies  including  Berg (2005) and Adesoji  (2008),  reported that  students’  positive  attitudes  to  science  correlate  highly with  the  attitude  of Nigerian students towards the basic sciences which tend to decrease in the order, Biology,  Chemistry,  Physics  and  Mathematics.  Results  were  obtained  by Udousoro (2000) after using computer and text-assisted programmed instruction and  Popoola  (2002)  after  exposing  students  to  a  self-learning  device.  Popoola (2008) also reported that  students’  attitudes and interests to sciences,  especially agricultural science, correlate highly with their science achievement.   Adesoji (2008) has concluded that a number of factors have been identified as  related  to  students’  attitude  to  science  (Chemistry).  Such  factors  include:  teaching  methods,  teacher  attitude,  influence  of  parents,  gender,  age, cognitive styles  of  pupils,  career  interest,  social  view  of  science  and  Scientifics,  social implicating of science (Chemistry) and achievement.   The  studies  suggested  that  there  is  a  relationship  between  attitude  and methods of instruction and also between attitude and achievement and that it is possible  to  predict  achievement  from  attitude  scores.  What  is  needed  to complement the results of such studies, however, is a study of the nature of the relationship  between  students’  attitudes  and  factors  related  to  teaching  and learning of Chemistry.  Results of these types of studies are likely to broaden our knowledge  as  to  how  we  can  influence  students’  attitudes  positively  towards Chemistry as a subject in Akure, Nigeria.

   Knowledge for Global Development  95  Purpose of the Study   The  purpose  of  the  study  was  to  investigate the  attitudes  of  students  in Akure,  South  Local  Government  Area  of  Ondo  State,  towards  the  study  of Chemistry as a subject and to find out if the subject should be made compulsory for all science students in secondary schools. The study is also designed to make recommendations  for  teachers  and  other  stakeholders  on  how  to  arouse  or improve students’ attitudes towards the subject.  Statement of the Problem   Despite  the  greater  number  of  Chemistry  graduates  produced  by  our tertiary institutions  every  year,  there are a number of secondary  schools  where Chemistry teachers are not competent in the teaching of the subject. In addition, the  attitude  of  the  students  in  secondary  schools  towards  Chemistry  as  a profession is not encouraging. This makes  the  teaching  of Chemistry ineffective even where there are competent  teachers to teach. It is on this premise  that  this study is designed to investigate the attitude of students to teaching and learning of Chemistry in secondary schools.  Research Questions   In order to investigate the attitude of students to Chemistry, the following questions were raised: 1. What are the students’ attitudes towards Chemistry? 2. To what extent do the attitudes of the students influence their teachers’ attitude  towards  the  subject?  Or  to  what  extent  does  the  teachers’ attitude to the subject influence students’ attitude? 3. What  are  their  attitudes  towards  problem  solving  as  a  result  of unavailability of textbooks and other instructional materials?  4. Should  Chemistry  be  made  compulsory  for  all  science  students  in secondary schools?   Scope of the Study   The  study  was  limited  to  secondary  schools  in  Akure  South  Local Government of Ondo State only. Based on the time frame and financial constraints in covering all the secondary schools in the Local Government, the study was also limited to the students in Senior Secondary Schools (SS Class).   Significance of the Study     It is hoped that the results of the study will assist Chemistry teachers to  develop  new  learning  experiences  for  the  students  and  to  reorganize  these learning experiences in ways enough to arouse the interest of the students.

   Knowledge for Global Development  96    It  would  be  helpful  if  teachers  were  to  improve  on  obsolete  teaching methods  and  use  adequate,  modern  and  relevant  instructional  materials  and textbooks at their disposed to the fullest.   This study may also assist the students to improve their attitude towards the study of the subject. Finally, the government and parents would benefit from the study of their roles as highlighted in the recommendation column.  LITERATURE REVIEW Student Attitudes and Science Achievement   Review  of  relevant  literature  depicts  varying  opinions  and  findings  on students’  attitudes  towards science  and  their  performances. According  to  Yara (2009), the attitude of students can be influenced by the attitude of the teacher and his  or  her  methods  of teaching.  He further  showed  in  his  work  that  teachers’ method of Mathematics  teaching  and his/her personality greatly  accounted  for the students’ positive  attitude towards the subject and that without interest  and personal effort by the students, they can hardly perform well in the subject.   Olatoye  (2001)  found  that  students’  attitude  towards  Chemistry  has  a significant  and  direct  effect  on  student  achievement  in  the  subject.  Adesokan (2002)  asserted  that  in  spite  of  the  recognition  given  to  Chemistry  among  the science subjects, it  is  evident that students still show  negative attitudes towards the subject thereby teaching to prior performance and low enrolment.   Our nation needs to attract all the academically gifted female students into the pursuit of Chemistry. There is also the need to maximize the scientific literacy of  young  female  students,  and  to  achieve  equity  in  participation  in Chemistry. Bennett, Rollnick, Green and White (2001) argued that girls and boys start off on equal footing in Chemistry and other science subject but once Physical Science and Mathematics become optional at the secondary school level, there is a downward spiral of female enrollment accompanied by decrease in achievement and interest. This  implies  that  there are  underlying  factors  affecting  the  attitudes  of  young female students towards Chemistry that needs to be addressed at the high school level (Santonimo, 2005).   To locate relevant previous student studies, computer (Internet) searches of three  databases  were  conducted  (Barnes,  Mclnerney,  &  Marsh,  2005;  Salta  & Tzougraki,  2004).  Their  scope  of  the  study  was  limited  to  Chemistry  as experienced  by  students  in  Secondary  School  rather  than  out-of-school experiences obtained from external sources such as the media, museum, field trips, and  friends.  As  indicated  earlier  none  of  these  nine  students  explored  the interaction between gender grade levels on students’ attitude towards Chemistry lessons. A number of curriculum evaluation projects included student attitude to Chemistry as  one of the dependent variables (Adesoji & Raimi, 2004; Thompson  & Soyibo, 2002), but they are not renewed in this paper because they focused on

   Knowledge for Global Development  97  the  effectiveness  of  a  curricular  or  instructional  innovation  rather  than  the attitudes  of  males and  females  toward  Chemistry  lessons at  different  levels  of schooling. Also, previous studies (Lang, Wong, & Fraser, 2005) which merely used student attitude towards Chemistry as a variable to correlate with other constructs are not included in this review.  Gender Differences in Students’ Attitudes towards Chemistry Lessons                Trumper  (2006)  used  76  items  to  create  a  Chemistry Attitude  Scale.  The items were placed in four categories: the study  of Chemistry in high school;  the social and economic  image  of  Chemistry; the role of Chemistry at  the  national-political  level;  and  the  masculine  –  feminine  image  of  Chemistry.  Using  the Chemistry Attitude Scale they surveyed 300 grades 11 and 12 high school students (16-18 years of age)  in  Israel. Buehl and Alenxander (2001) reported that  female students enjoyed learning Chemistry more than male students but their research involved  form  5  students  only.  They  used  a  22  Likert  –type  items  with  four components: enjoyment, motivation, anxiety and importance of Chemistry. They claimed that the items were obtained from published research, but no sources were given.     Not all previous studies documented that girls had a more positive attitude towards  the  study  of  Chemistry  than  boys.  Salta  and  Tzougraki  (2004),  for example, surveyed 576 high school students in Greece using an attitude scale with four  subscales:  the  difficulty  of  Chemistry  courses;  the  interest  in  Chemistry courses; the usefulness and importance of Chemistry. The interaction between of gender and grade was not examined.   In  Australia,  Barnes  et  al.  (2005)  explored  sex  difference  in  enrolment intentions expressed by 449 year-10 students’ interest in Chemistry and concluded that males found Chemistry more interesting than females.  Changes in Students’ Attitude towards Chemistry Lessons across Grade Levels                 The grade level and students’ attitudes were rarely studied by Chemistry educators and more past studies considered science generally. Only two previous studies  examined  changes  in  secondary  school  students’  attitudes  toward Chemistry  lessons  across grade  levels.  As indicated  above, Barnes  et  al. (2005) surveyed 33 grades 11 and 12 high school students in Israel. They found a decline in  the  attitude  toward  the study  of  Chemistry  when students  progressed  from grade 11 to grade 12. However, how grade level interacted/interfaced /impacted with gender was not investigated in their study.   Apart from students’ attitudes to the study of Chemistry, Abdullah (2009) blamed “government for mass failure in Chemistry and other science subjects” (p. 26).  Why?  Abdullah  stated  that  “for  more  than  a  decade  now  the  quality  of teaching and learning in our school system had fallen, beginning from the primary

   Knowledge for Global Development  98  level”  (p.  26).    Abdullah  also  stated  that  most  teachers  lack  both  content  and methodology. Not fewer than 50% of them are under qualified. Abdullah further highlighted  the  following  reasons  why  the  government  is  to  blame:  the  little resources that  are  made available  without  the plant  are  subjected  to  very strict corruption  in  the  management  and  servicing of  education.      No trained or  not enough  trained  people  for  monitoring  and  evaluation  of  schools;  collapsed infrastructure,  lack  of  instructional  materials;  hostility  of  the  environment,  no laboratory  training  and  experience,  not  enough  professional  teachers development programmes and inadequate funding of the schools.  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY   The survey research design was used because there was no manipulation of  the  independent  variables  by  the  researcher.  The  population  for  this  study consisted of the  SSS  Students  of Akure South  Local  Government  Area of Ondo State, Nigeria. A total of 300 students classified into gender (i.e., male and female) were randomly selected from five secondary schools in Ondo State.  The ages of the students of the selected schools were between 15 and 18 years old.   In carrying out the study, the research employed the use of questionnaires to collect necessary data for the study. The questionnaire contained close-ended items which had the response format of Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Disagree (D),  and  Strongly  Disagree  (SD).  The  questionnaires  were  for  the  final  year students  of  Senior  Secondary  School  that  are  randomly  selected  in  the  above schools.  The  questionnaire  used  for  this  study  was  self-constructed.  The instrument was divided into two sections. Section A contained the bio-data of the students  while  Section  B  consists  of  questions  on  their  liking  for  the  subject, teachers’ attitudes, availability of textbooks and instructional materials.        The  draft  questionnaire  was  shown  to  colleagues  and  some  Chemistry teachers in some secondary schools for scrutiny and content validation to ascertain the content’s face and construct validity.   The  questionnaires were  distributed  in  a  good  and  smooth atmospheric condition.  Permission was sought from the school principals before the study was conducted.    With  the  assistance  of  class  and  subject  teachers,  questionnaires  were distributed to the students.  The researcher provided some vital instructions to the participants with regard to the whole exercise. The questionnaires were collected after completion and verification. Responses were analyzed using  the  Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15.0.    

   Knowledge for Global Development  99  RESULTS Research Question One: Do the students have positive attitudes towards Chemistry?  As shown in Table, 1 62.3% respondents did not consider the subject as their favourite subject, 71.3% did not intend to study Chemistry at a higher level, 72.7% would prefer to  opt  out  of  the subject, and 73.3% believed  that  the  subject was difficult, while 64.3% believed that they do not understand Chemistry. From the results obtained there is an indication that these students have a negative attitude towards Chemistry as a subject.  Table 1 Attitudes of Students towards Chemistry         Items Yes % No % 1. Is Chemistry your favourite subject? 117 37.1 187 62.3 2. Chemistry is one of the subjects you intend studying? 86 28.7 214 71.3 3. Chemistry  is  needed  at  all  in  your  work  or course  of study? 162 56.0 138 46 4. If you have an option for Chemistry, would you opt out of the lesson? 218 72.7 82 27.3 5. Do you believe Chemistry is difficult? 220 73.3 80 26.7 6. Do you believe that you know and understand Chemistry? 107 35.7 193 64.3   Research Question Two: Are their negative attitudes towards the study of Chemistry  as  a  subject  affected  by  unavailability  of  textbooks  and  other instructional materials?  Seventy seven percent of the participants disagreed that they do not find it easy or understand few textbooks; 59.7% are of the opinion that the few textbooks or instructional materials that are available are expensive or difficult to come by, while 50% each either agreed or disagreed on the use of instructional materials to arouse students’ interest while teaching. See Table 2.    Table 2 Negative Attitudes of Students towards the Subject         Items Yes % No % 11. At home, I find my Chemistry textbook too easy for private studies.  69  23  231  77 27. My  teacher  shows  good motivation  during  teaching-learning process?  172  50  128  50 29. The recommended textbook is too difficult for a beginner as it  does  not carry  enough  cooked  examples  and  exercises which could guide private learners. Some textbooks are too expensive to procure.    179    40.3    121    59.7 

   Knowledge for Global Development  100   Research  Question Three:  Are  their  negative  attitudes  a  result  of  the attitude of their teachers towards the subject?  As  shown  in  Table  3,  most  of  the  teachers  were  not  motivators,  not approachable and did not give students regular assignments. From other items, it was also discovered that some teachers are lazy in the discharge of their duties or too harsh on students, and some of them use obsolete teaching methods. From the foregoing,  it  could  be  deduced that  the attitude  of  teachers  contributed  to  the negative attitude of the students to the subject. Table 3  Responses of Students to the Attitude of their Teachers          Items  Yes  %  No  % 7 Is/are  your  Chemistry teacher(s)  highly  motivating while teaching?  186  62  114  38.0 8 Is he/she approachable? 198 66 102 34.0 9 Does he/she give you assignments regularly? 204 68 96 32.0 19 Our Chemistry teacher is too lazy to look at our notes for the purpose of making necessary correction. 160 53.3 90 46.7 20 Our Chemistry teacher is too harsh and incompetent. 134 44.7 186 55.3 26 My  teacher  uses  instructional  materials  to  arouse  my interest while teaching some concepts in Chemistry. 172 57.3 128 42.7 27 My  teacher  shows  good  motivation  during  teaching-learning process. 140 50 104 50.0 28 The teaching method(s) used by my teacher(s) of Chemistry is/are obsolete. 113 37.7 187 62.3   Research Question Four: Should Chemistry  be made compulsory for all students in secondary schools?  The results showed that a larger percentage  of the students did not think that Chemistry should be made a compulsory subject. The findings also showed that students study Chemistry because it is compulsory for science students and it will enable them secure admissions. The participants stated that they would not have registered  for  it  if it were not  compulsory  for  science  students in  external examinations. In addition, 86% of the participants would prefer the subject to be removed from the secondary school curriculum. This clearly showed that students generally dislike Chemistry. See Table 4 for the results.      

   Knowledge for Global Development  101  Table 4 Students’ Response to making Chemistry a Compulsory Subject          Items  Yes  %  No  % 13. You often create time for problem solving in Chemistry at your own volition.  118  39.3  182  60.7 14. Do you study Chemistry because it is compulsory for science students in the Secondary School Certificate?   200   66.7   100   33.3 15. Do you study Chemistry to enable you secure and mission? Do you study Chemistry to enable you secure and mission?  160  53.3  140  46.7 17. Only very brilliant students should study Chemistry? 224  74.7 76  25.3 22. Do you prefer any non-Chemistry subject to the study of Chemistry? 366  88.7 34  11.3 24. If Chemistry is not a compulsory subject for science students I would not register nor sit for it in my school certificate.  258  86.0  42  14.0        DISCUSSION   The findings of this study showed that the negative attitudes of the students are the function of lack of interest, erroneous beliefs that Chemistry is volatile and poor  motivation  by teachers.  This  supports  the findings  of  Cheung  (2009) and Cousins (2007) who suggested that students should be motivated always to put in their best to the study of the subject. Eagly and Chaiken (2005) in their reports too, concluded  that  the  hatred  from  some  science  teachers  especially  Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics is an offspring of negative attitude in the subject itself. They advised students to discard the misconception that Chemistry is difficult and volatile.   The findings of this study also corroborated the findings of Cheung (2009) who  concluded  that  the  teachers’  background  can  hinder  student/teacher relationship in good academic performances in Senior Secondary School. Cheung also stated that students can be affected by teachers’ teaching methods, ability to arouse students’ interest towards learning a topic, poor and shabby orientation to students on the part of the teachers when  the  teacher  is  not  ready  to discharge, when teachers could not motivate their students.   The study also showed that negative attitude to the subject is influenced by the parents’ attitudes. In the opinion of Berg (2005), this problem is attributed to

   Knowledge for Global Development  102  the  illiteracy  idea on  the  part  of  the  parents. Berg  emphasised  the need  of  the parents to encourage their children on the choice of Chemistry as a subject.   Lastly, the study showed that teachers did not use adequate instructional materials and  students complaint about  textbooks  not  explicit  enough  for  their private study. This attitude of the Chemistry teachers were not in agreement with ideas of Lang et al. (2005) and Popoola (2008) who believed, that they should use recent/modern and adequate  instructional  materials to  teach  their  students. By using these students’ interest would be aroused.  CONCLUSION The results of the study revealed that right or positive attitude to Chemistry is  essential  if  students  want  to  perform  well  in  both  the  theory  and  practical components of the  subject.  More  efforts  should  be made toward improving the factors that tend to militate against positive attitudes of the students.   The  findings  also  showed  that  Chemistry  teachers  should  motivate students  and  these  students  should  be  given  sound  foundation  on Chemistry. Modern text books should be provided to learners and teachers. Teachers should employ modern methods of teaching that will facilitate individualized instruction. The results of the study also showed that the students were glaringly opposed to Chemistry as a subject. It is believed that their feeling is a reflection of their apathy and  frustration  created  in  part  by  the  prevailing  conditions.    To  effect  any meaningful  change  in  the  present  situation,  Chemistry  teaching  and  learning facilitates must be provided and/or improved in all schools.  RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the findings, the following recommendations are made: 1.  Teachers should be given the privilege to attend seminars, workshops and conferences so that they can be conversant with the recent developments in the teaching of Chemistry. 2. Measures must be taken to improve the quality of Chemistry teachers. This includes  more  careful  recruitment,  improved  preparation  of  Chemistry teachers in training institutions, retraining programmes for young teachers with limited experience, in-service and long vacation courses, improvement in teachers’ salaries with special allowances for Chemistry teachers. These could be ways by which Chemistry teaching can be made more attractive to the teachers. 3. Teachers should involve all students in practical work as it is known that learners learn faster when a hands-on approach is used.  4. Teachers should assist in improving the attitudes  of  students  toward  the theory  and  practical  components  of  Chemistry  in  order  to  enhance achievement in the School Certificate Examinations.

   Knowledge for Global Development  103  5. The  Government  should  make  available  the  necessary  instructional material, equipment and resources, especially in the area of Chemistry.  REFERENCES Abdullah,  N.  M.  (2009).  Blame  government  for  mass  failure  –  Mataimaki  Ton Maiyashi. Daily Trust. p. 26. Abimbola.  A.  (1983).  The  relative  effectiveness  of  programmed  instruction  to  the traditional  teaching  of  secondary  mathematics  (Master’s  dissertation). University of Ibadan.  Adesokan,  G. O. (2002). Students’ attitude and gender as determinants of performance in JSS integrated and science (Bachelor’s  Project). University of Ado Ekiti, Nigeria.  Adesoji, F. A., & Raimi, S. M. (2004). Effects of enhanced a laboratory instructional technique on Senior Secondary Students’ attitude towards chemistry in Oyo  township,  Oyo  State,  Nigeria.  School  Science  Education  and Technology, 13(3), 377-385. Adesoji,  F.  A.  (2008).  Managing  Students’  attitude  towards  science  through problem – solving instructional strategy. Anthropologist, 10(1), 21-24. Aiken, L.R. (1979). Attitudes toward mathematics and science in Iranian middle  schools. Schools Science and Mathematics, 79(3), 229-234. Aiyelaagbe, G. O. (1998). The effectiveness of audio, visual and audio-visual self-learning packages in adult learning outcomes in basic literacy skills in Ibadan (Doctoral thesis).  University of Ibadan. Armstrong,  J.,  &  Impara,  J.  (1991).  The  effect  of  test  administration  on environmental attitudes. Journal of Environmental Edition, 21, 37-39. Balogun,  T.  A. (1975).  Interest  in  science and  technology  education  in  Nigeria. Journal of Science Teachers’ Association of Nigeria, 23(1&2), 92-99. Barnes,G., Mclnerney D. M., & Marsh,  H. W. (2005). Experience sex differences on science  enrolment  intentions:  An  application  of  the  general  model  of academic choice. Australia Educational Researcher, 32(2), 1-23.   Berg, C. A. R. (2005). Factors related to observed attitude change towards learning chemistry among university students. Chemistry Education Research  and Practice, 6(1), 1-18. Bennett, J., Rollnick, M., Green G., & White, M. (2001). The development and use of an instrument to  assess students’ attitude to the study  of chemistry. International Journal of Science Education, 23(8), 833-845. Buehl,  M.  M.,  &  Alenxander,  P.  A.  (2001).  Belief  about  academic  knowledge.   Educational Psychology Review, 13, 385-418. Cheung, A. (2009). Studies’ attitudes toward chemistry lessons: The interaction  effect between grade level and gender. Research Science Education, 39, 75-91. 

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