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  1.                                               INTRODUCTION

Nigeria is a multi-cultural society endowed with diverse traditional vegetable soups which are indigenous to different ethnic groups and consumed along with traditional dietary staples, obtained from cassava, yam, cocoyam, sweet potatoes, plantain, millet, rice and maize (Ndulaka et al.2017). The soups are cooked utilizing varieties of indigenous vegetables which are not only known for their rich food nutrient content but are also healths promoting (Asaolu et al. 2012). Consumption of dietary antioxidants from these vegetables is beneficial in preventing diseases (Sumazian et al., 2010,Huda et al., 2009). Apart from promoting good health, increased consumption of these indigenous vegetables will help to enhance crop diversity, alleviate poverty and promote food security (Barry et al., 2009). Immense attention has thus been directed to these vegetables due to the increased awareness of their health protecting properties and bioactive phytochemicals that have been linked to protection against cardiovascular and other degenerative diseases (Adefegha, 2013).

          These soups which are rich naturally in micronutrient within different ethnic groups  reduce occurrences of some micronutrient deficiencies.

          Urbanization and hectic life are closely related terms, and both of these two factors are now compelling people to be habituated with ready-to-eat processed junk foods which contain high sugar, fat, salt, and low nutrient value in terms of protein, fiber, vitamin, and mineral contents (Buzzanell, 2006). Consumption of these nutrient-deficient foods ultimately exaggerated the malnutrition-related problems. To overcome these problems we have to formulate ready-to-eat nutritious foods that are sufficient to fulfill daily requirement. In this regard, dry soup powder could be a well choice as its popularity is increasing day by day among different classes of people due to its short reconstitution time, protection from enzymatic and oxidative spoilage, and flavor stability at room temperature over long periods of time (6-12 months) (Carmichael. 2001). However, the locally available soup powders are not up to the mark in nutritional quality. The nutritional quality of traditional soup powders could be improved by supplementing it with mushroom, moringa leaf powders, and soy flour (Cormick, 2007).

          Today, strategies to improve health are a driving factor for market growth within the food and beverage industry. Interestingly, it has been reported that about 77% of U.S. households claim they are trying to reduce their risk of heart disease and cancer (Fry, 2009). Americans between the ages of 36 and 55 are increasingly interested in adopting healthy eating behaviors and are gravitating towards ethnic cuisines, such as Asian and Mediterranean, based on the perceived health benefits associated with these types of cuisines. Although some indigenous cuisines may be considered to be healthier than others, overall food consumption patterns, as well as food preparation techniques, are also likely equally important. According to a 1995 report from the United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Economic Research Service (ERS), rising domestic use of spices reflects growing Hispanic and Asian populations within the U.S., as well as a trend towards the use of culinary spices to compensate for less salt and lower fat levels in foods, and a more general increase in the popularity of ethnic foods from Asia and Latin America. Between 1970 and 2005, the overall per capita consumption of spices has doubled, increasing from 1.6 pounds per year to 3.3 pounds per year; however in the case of galic  usage has increased more than six-fold (Fry, 2009).

          Changes in U.S. herb and spice use between 1970 and 2005 based in data from USDA’s Economic Research Service Data http://www/ers.usda. the “other spices” category includes basil, cardamom, capers, curry and curry powder products, dill, fenugreek, origanum. There are no clear distinctions between culinary herbs and spice in much of the scientific and trade literature, with some plants considered to be both. While the U.S. food and Drug Administration (FDA) do not provide standards of identity for spices. It does provide guidance concerning acceptable terminology used for food labeling purpose. FDA’s general definition for a spice is an “aromatic vegetable substance, in the whole, broken, or ground form, whose significant function in food is season rather than nutrition” and form which “no portion of any volatile oil or other flavoring principle has been removed”. The U.S. National Arboretum offers an alternative definition and describes spices as “flavorings (often of tropical origin) that are dried and culinary herbs are fresh or dried leaves from plants which can be used for flavoring purposes in food preparation.” Despite established definitions by FDA and the U.S. National Arboretum, herb and spices are not only studied as intact products, but their active components are also examined.

Consumption and Exposure Assessment Challenges

Efforts to assess dietary intake in general are complicated by measurement issues, such as recall bias, difficulty of estimating portion size and frequency of intake (Hassan and Hall, 2003). Estimating typical herb and spice intake in sub-populations is even more problematic because they are generally consumed in conjunction with other foods and in trace amounts. Herbs and spices may not be as captured as a primary ingredient in a compositional analyses of food mixtures. Each year, the USDA’s ERS publishers average U.S. per capita food availability (Health, 1999), which takes into consideration a commodity’s availability after subtraction of exports, industrial, and farm uses, and which may be considered a proxy for food intake, including spices. Some of the most commonly used herbs and spices for culinary purposes, as reported by the USDA. Since regions around the world often have distinct ethnic cuisines, one can expert trends in spice and herb usage to vary substantially worldwide. A study which identified the most commonly used spices involving 36 countries found overlap between the most commonly used world-wide and the most common spices used in the U.S., such as onions, garlic, ginger, locust bean, and some peppers (Billing and Sherman, 2000). However, dietary exposure values by geographic region for the full range of herbs and spices, or their bioactive components, do not appear to exist. The difficulty in measuring herb and spice consumption arises from their use in food preparation in typically small amounts.

          Concentrations of herbs and spices used in food preparation often vary based on individual preference, but the concentration of herbs and spices in finished foods frequently falls within the range of 0.5-1% (Douglas, 2012). A recent attempt to evaluate human methyl eugenol exposure for the National Toxicology Program (NIP), which coordinates toxicology research and testing activities within the U.S Department of Health and Human Services and in partnership with the National Cancer Institute (NCI), highlights many of the challenges associated with exposure assessment for herbs and spices in general. Methyl eugenol belongs to a family of chemicals which includes several naturally occurring compounds commonly found in the human diet, such as isoeugenol, eugenol, estragole, and safrole, which can be found in spices such as nutmeg and allspices, herbs such as basil and tarragon, in addition to fruits such as bananas and oranges (Carmichael, 2001). The USDA’s National Nutrient Data Base for standard Reference (NNDB) serves as the one of the most commonly used references for food composition data in the U.S. The NNDB is often linked to other nutrient databases employed in large national surveys, such as NHANES. The NNDB also links to several therapeutic and research database. Unfortunately, the inclusion of Herbs, spices, and their active ingredients are only now beginning to be expanded in the NNDB and other USDA database, such as the USDA’s Database for the Flavonoid content of selected foods.


          Herbs and spices are “Generally Recognized as Safe” (GRAS) by the FDA, at least at concentrations commonly found in foods; however, many herbs, spices, and their bioactive components, are being investigated for potential disease prevention and treatment at concentrations which may exceed those commonly used in food preparation. It is therefore imperative to identify any potential safety concerns associated with the use of various dosages which range from does commonly used for culinary purposes to those used for medicinal purposes since there are often unclear the various uses of herbs and spices.

          Another source of data on the safety and efficacy of herbs and spices comes from the body of knowledge related to herbal medicine. The German Commission E Monographs (Ndulaka, et al., 2017) are probably the most widely known resources on herbal medicines. The German Commission E reviewed data on traditional uses, chemical data, experimental pharmacological, arid toxicology studies, clinical studies, field and epidemiological studies, patient case records, along with unpublished proprietary manufactures’ data. The Commission E published more than 400 monographs which are highly regarded and provide guidance to the public, health professionals, and industry on herbal products. There are two general categories of monographs. The first category of monographs consists of those that are negative or “unapproved,” for products were “no plausible evidence of efficacy” was available or when safety concerns outweighed potential benefits associated with the product’s use. Basil, lemongrass based either on documented and/or suspected risk or limited documentation of effectiveness for medicinal purposes. None of the purported uses of the unapproved herbs and spices in the Commission E monographs appears relevant to cancer prevention or treatment; however they raise some potentially relevant safety concerns.  

Health Effects

          To date, hundreds of compounds have been identified as potential modifiers of cancer, several of which are active ingredients in herbs and spices. Despite a rapidly growing body, of experimental evidence supporting the cancer preventive properties of non-nutritive food components, such as herbs and species, minimal data exists regarding actual dietary intake levels of herbs and species in the U.S. and elsewhere. Consequently, researchers are limited in their ability to compare the effective exposures of culinary herbs, species, and their bioactive components from experimental studies, which are primarily animal studies, using approximate human intake levels, furthermore, information on the uptake, distribution, and excretion of most non-nutritive dietary component is sparse little data related to human blood levels of those compounds has been published in the scientific literature (Ndulaka, et al., 2017).  

Spices Antimicrobial and Antifungal Activity

          Although historical records indicate that herbs and spices were used for flavoring, food preservation, and medicinal purposes in ancient times, it is uncertain how herbs and spices were used in food and medicine until more modern times. Issues pertaining to the prevention of food-borne illness have long been an area of concern for scientist, public health officials, and the public; however, a growing number of researchers are investigating the link between the antimicrobial and antifungal properties of various foods and food components, such as culinary herbs and spices, and their role(s) in reducing chronic disease risk. Bacterial, viral, and parasitic mediated cancer deaths have been estimated to range from 20-25% in developing countries and 7-10% in industrialized countries (Blumenthal, 2013). How culinary herbs and spices may influence the complications associated with these bacterial, viral, and parasitic challenges remains unknown. Herbs and spices which possess antimicrobial activity include those containing simple phenols and phenolic acids, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids, (Etukudo, 2003). A study in the later 1990s set out to investigate the hypothesis that herbs and spices, which have known antimicrobial properties, were incorporated into food preparation for their antimicrobial properties rather than for purely organoleptic purposes (Fry, 2009) found that countries with hot climate use multiple spices on a regular basis (in >40% of meat-based recipes) versus countries with cooler climates (<5% of meat-based recipes) (Etukudo, 2003). This finding is notable for two reasons: prior to refrigeration, foods in warmer climates were likely to spoil more quickly than foods in cooler climates and many spices work synergistically and display increased antibacterial capabilities when used in combination than when used alone (Billing and Sherman, 2000). Use of chili peppers (also known as capsicums), garlic, onion, anise, cinnamon, coriander, cumin, ginger, lemongrass, and turmeric were positively correlated with mean annual temperature (Billing and Sherman, 2000). There was also a significant positive correlation between mean annual temperatures and the proportion of meat-based recipes that incorporate spices which have a bacterial inhibition rate >75%, indicating that recipes from hotter regions of the world tend to have higher bactericidal potential (Billing and Sherman, 2000). A side-by-side comparison of the sensitivity of several bacterial to eight common antibiotics and extracts of garlic and clove found that the garlic extract displayed bactericidal activity similar to antibiotics with several Gram-negative bacteria ( Dragland et al, 2003). Gram negative bacteria which have been studied in relation to herbs and spices include Escherichia coli (E.coli), Salmonella, and Vibrio cholera (V.cholerae).

          The basis requirements of life are food; clothing and shelter, of the three, foods come first. Its importance and the part it plays in sustaining human life cannot be over emphasized. It is for this reason that Joint Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization Committee on Nutrition, the urgency of the general food, Nutrition and outlook in the world. Spices are aromatic flavouring added to food to enhance it, making it attractive and palatable (FAO, 1999). Without it the food is just ordinary and unattractive.

          There are numerable spices in use in Nigeria. Some of these spices are obtained from the wild. If properly harness it could be a money spinning venture like ginger, garlic and turmeric. These includes; Monodora myristica, Xylopia dethopica, Byrosocurpus dinkelayer, Gongronema latifolium, piper guinessnse, Ricinus communis, Pentadethra macropylla, Ocimum gratissimus among others (Acott et al. 2015). Some of these locus beans spices are very medicinal as stressed elsewhere (Adema, 2002). For instance, Uda and Uziza are frequently used to prepare food for woman after delivery (Davidson et al, 2011).

          Today, there is a growing consciousness about the existence of cheap and nutritious local spices and the need to use them. The consciousness arose due to what the nation encounters in importing expensive foreign foods and spices. There is need for Nigerians to learn to use local spices in the preparation of food based on economic and nutritional point of view. This concern has motivated several researchers on food in some research institutes in Nigeria to find out ways of popularizing some of the local food stuff/spices not widely know and used. A good example of this is the “menu time” and “Maggi kitchen” programmes air by Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) and some states Television stations sponsored by Nestle Food Nigeria (Smith and Minor, 2007).

          In Orumba North, Ogiri-isi is frequently used to prepare ornubu soup as well as Ugba/African salad (Gobin, et al., 2001) and so when this is lacking it is neither acceptable nor marketable as pointed out elsewhere (Smith and Minor, 2007). There are several local spices which when process are use, some are been preserve while surpluses are then marketed in the area which perhaps are not documented. Spices are sought in the wide by most woman to be traded in the domestic market. Some  are been sold fresh while surpluses are preserve using local methods to be traded during off season. Some woman that engage in spice business have gone a little further in diversifying into raising the spices in the farm through credit borrowing. This is to assist them to supply both fresh and dried spices as demand detect. From literature point of view, it has been identified that limited access to credit resources are among the major constraints responsible for declining productivity of agribusiness ventures (Raji and Akinoso, 2013). Thus, credit in Agric business plays a crucial role in enterprise development (Adefagha and Oboh, 2011).

          Hence, there is need to investigate and identify these local spices and perhaps to know how these spices are use and preserve. Majority of the people who use these local spices are woman, their methods of preservation and storage seem inefficient. If these spices are properly processed and stored with large storage device along with attractive package, documented and promoted, most woman make huge income from the sales of the spices.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

          The use of spices in cooking soup can be dated back to time immemorial, spices constitute essential components in traditional and modern cooking and without them soup will not have their unique flavor and taste. It is observed that Nigeria market is currently flooded with the proliferation of numerous foreign spices such as magi cubes, Royco cubes, Knor cubes, monosodium glutamate (Ajinomoto), Doyin cubes, lena cubes, Vedan, supply cubes onga powdered, and many others.

          Our indigenous soup are almost been forgotten, and there are traces of ailments/diseases traceable to be consumption of these foreign soup such as different cancers diabetics, hypertension and others (NAFDAC). Our health is been endangered, and the use of spices in cooking have become so imperative and natural, synthetic foreign spices often run and render some foods unpalatable, thereby defeating the essence of its usage.

          It is observed that indigenous soup is not pronounce and popular with meals and nearly been neglected/ignored.

          It is on this premise that the research intend to research into the following areas in indigenous soup.

  1.  To identify the various indigenous soups
  2. Determining the Nutritional Properties of Indigenous soup
  3. The required quantity of spices to be use on soup
  4. Assessing the frequency of consumption of local soup
  5. The colour of indigenous spices in connection with the colour soup
  6. Assessing the sensory qualities and acceptability of indigenous soup
  7. To preserver a named type of soup
  8. The right type of indigenous spices for respective soup

1.3     Research Questions

          This study therefore attempts to answer these research questions:

  1. What are the socio-economic characteristics of the taste panelist in the study area?
  2. What are different types of indigenous spices in the study area?
  3. Do spices influence soup acceptability?
  4. What are  the shelf life of the   indigenous soup in the study area?
  5. What determines the proportions of indigenous spices used in indigenous soup in the study area?
  6. What are the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and tourists perception on the use and consumption of indigenous soup in the study area?
  7. What determines the proportion of process spices used in process soups in the study area?

1.4     Justification for the Study

          Very scanty research has been conducted on indigenous soup and quality enhancement soup in Nigeria. Several research work as been embarked upon among these are; survey  Nutrients composition of some traditional soups consumed by postpartum mothers in Nigeria (Mustapha, 2013),  The type of spice used is Menodora mysthca (Ariwo in Yoruba) the soup is mainly consumed by post postpartum mothers in Nigeria. While (Ndulaka et al. 2017) worked on comparative studies on the nutritional and anti-nutritional properties of indigenous seeds used as soup thickeners in south east Nigeria, here the seeds used was tested as soup thickeners, while (Raji and Akinoso, 2013) worked on thermal properties of some selected Nigeria soups, these were not tested on anything, it was a review work.

          The picture we have on indigenous soup was limited and sketchy. No work has been done on indigenous soup for Tourist Acceptability. Although soup have been for ages, but there is a gap in having a standard soup to be in place for tourist acceptability.

          Base on the above, there is an urgent need to fill the existing gap. This will definitely be addressed by this project.

1.5     Objectives of the Study

          General Objective

          The general objectives is to research into some indigenous soup, determining their Nutritional, and Sensory qualities on Ten (10)  soups to be prepared for tourist panelist to assess. Four (4) indigenous soups (snail pepper soup, marugbo soup cotton soup and moringa soups, three (3) indigenous to be  fortified with  moringa. Three   (3) process stew  using meat (i.e) Beef  stew, Fish stew and snail stew for tourists acceptability in old Oyo National Park and Ikogosi warm spring Resort.

Specific objectives are to:-

  1. Identify and select from  various indigenous soups in the study area
  2. Determine the quantity of spices required and method of application in process soups.
  3. Examine the right type of indigenous spices for individual soups
  4. Determine the sensory properties of the soups.
  5. Evaluate shelf life of the soups and methods of increasing it.
  6. Determine the proportion of nutrients derivable/accrued from  each of the selected soups
  7. To identify the attributes that  are associated with acceptability of indigenous soups by tourist.
  8. Determine how indigenous spices use on soups has improved the acceptability and palatability of the food.
  9. Determine the anti-nutrients composition of marugbo, koroowu and moringa leaves used as spices in preparing the soups.

1.6     Hypothesis of the Study

Hypothesis 1

          Ho: Indigenous soups   has   no significant impact on tourist acceptability.

.         Hi: Indigenous soups   has  significant  impact on tourist acceptability.

Hypothesis 2

          Ho: Indigenous soups has no significant impact on the health status of tourist to a destination.

          Hi: Indigenous soups has significant impact on the health status of tourist to a destination.

Hypothesis 3

          Ho: Shelf life has no significant impact on indigenous soups acceptability

          Hi: Shelf life has significant impact on indigenous soups acceptability.

Hypothesis 4

          Ho: Meat attributes has no relationship with process soups acceptability

         Hi:  Meat attributes has relationship with process soups acceptability.

1.7     Scope and Limitation of the Study

          The scope of the study will cover Ikogosi warm spring and old Oyo National park in Oyo State.

1.8     Operational Definition of Term

i.        Soup: A liquid Food especially with a meat, fish, or vegetable stock as a base and often containing pieces of solid food.

ii        Herbs: Is any plant with leaves seeds, or flowers used for flavoring food medicine or perfume or any seed bearing plant which does not have a woody stem and dies down to the ground after flowering

iii.      Spices: Is an aromatic or pungent vegetable substance used to flavor food e.g pepper or cumin, cloves or a substance (such as pepper or nutmeg) that is used in cocking to add flavor to the food and that comes from a dried plant.

iv.      Food: Is any nutrition substances that people or animals seat or drink or that plant absorb in order to maintain life and growth. It can also be defined as any substance either solid or liquid that is being digested which is edible to eating and aid proper functioning of the body. 

v.       Anise:- The seed of a named spice

vi.      Cloves:- A bud spice

vii.     Ginger:- A root spice

viii.    Ariwo:- Native named for one spice

ix       Aridon:- Local bean seed

x.       Iru:- Local bean seed

xi.      Ogiri:- Local named for one spice

xii.     Ecotourism:- Responsible travel to natural areas that helps conserve the environment and improves the well-being of local people.

xiii.    National Park: A place designated for the conservation and protection of biodiversity, as well as tourism, research, research and education


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