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1.1.   Background of the Study

The new millennium brought with it new possibilities in terms of information access and availability simultaneously, introducing new challenges in protecting sensitive information from some eyes while making it available to others. Today’s business environment is extremely dynamic and experience rapid changes as a result of technological improvement, increased awareness and  demands  Banks  to  serve  their  customers electronically. Banks have traditionally been in the forefront of harnessing technology to improve their products and services.

The Banking industry of the 21st century operates in a complex and competitive environment characterized by these changing conditions and highly unpredictable economic climate. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is at the centre of this global change curve of Computerized banking System in Nigeria today. (Stevens 2002). Assert that they have over the time, been using electronic and telecommunication networks for delivering a wide range of value added products and services, managers in Banking industry in Nigeria cannot ignore Information Systems because they play a critical impact in current Banking system, they point out that the entire cash flow of most fortune Banks are linked to Information System.

The application of information and communication technology concepts, techniques, policies and implementation strategies to banking services has become a subject of fundamental importance and concerns to all Banks and indeed a prerequisite for local and global competitiveness Banking.

The advancement in Technology has played an important role in improving service delivery  standards in  the  Banking  industry.  In  its  simplest  form,  Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) and deposit machines now allow consumers carry out banking transactions beyond banking hours.

With online banking, individuals can check their account balances and make payments without having to go to the bank hall. This is gradually creating a cashless society where consumers no longer have to pay for all their purchases with hard cash. For example: bank customers can pay for airline tickets and subscribe 1to initial public offerings by transferring the money directly from their accounts, or pay for various gods and services by electronic transfers of credit to the sellers account. As most people now own mobile phones, banks have also introduced mobile banking to cater for customers who are always on the move. Mobile banking allows individuals to check their account balances and make fund transfers using their mobile phones. This was popularized by First Atlantic Bank (now First Inland Bank) through its “Flash me cash” product Customers can also recharge their mobile phones via SMS. E-Banking has made banking transactions easier around the World and it is fast gaining acceptance in Nigeria.

The delivery channels today in Nigeria computerized banking are quite numerous has it is mentioned here Automatic Teller Machine (ATM), Point of Sales (POS), Telephone Banking, Smart Cards, Internet Banking etc Personal computers in the Banking industry was first introduced into Nigeria by Society Generale Bank as the popular PC easy access to the internet and World Wide Web (www) and internet is increasingly used by Bank’s as a channel of delivering the products and services to the numerous customers. Virtually almost all Banks in Nigeria have a web presence; this form of Banking is referred to as Internet Banking which is generally part of Computerized banking.                           The delivery of products by banks on public domain is an indication of advertisement which is known has E-Commerce.  Electronic commerce on the other hand is a general term for any type of business or commercial transaction it involves the transfer of information across the internet. E-Commerce involves individuals and business organization exchanging   business   information   and   instructions   over    electronic   media   using computers, telephones and other communication equipments. This covers a range of different types of business from consumers to retails products. However, Computerized banking as it is; is a product of E-Commerce in the field of banking and financial services. It’s offers different online services like balance enquiry, request for cheque

books, recording stop payment instructions, balance transfer instructions, account opening and other form of traditional banking services. The Internet allows businesses to use information more effectively, by allowing customers, suppliers, employees, and partners to get access to the business information they need, when they need it. These Internet- enabled services all translate to reduced cost: there are less overhead, greater economies of scale, and increased efficiency. E-Banking’ greatest promise is timelier, more valuable information accessible to more people, at reduced cost of information access. With the changes in business operations as a result of the Internet era, security concerns move from computer labs to the front page of newspapers. The promise of E-Banking is offset by the security challenges associated with the disintermediation of data access. One security challenge results from “cutting out the middleman,” that too often cuts out the information security the middleman provides. Another is the expansion of the user community from a small group of known, vetted users accessing data from the intranet, to thousands of users accessing data from the Internet. Application service providers (ASP) and exchanges offer especially stringent — and sometimes contradictory — requirements of per user and per customer security, while allowing secure data sharing among communities of interest. E- Banking depends on providing customers, partners, and employees with access to information, in a way that is controlled and secure. Technology must provide security to meet the challenges encountered by E-Banking. Virtually all software and hardware vendors claim to build secure products, but what assurance does an E-Banking have of a product’s security? E-Banking want a clear answer to the conflicting security claims they hear from vendors. How can you be confident about the security built into a product? Independent security evaluations against internationally-established security criteria provide assurance of vendors’ security claims.

Customer expectation, in terms of service delivery and other key factors have increased dramatically in recent years, as a result of the promise and delivery of the internet. Even after the “dot –com crash” these raised expectations linger.

The growth in the application and acceptance of internet-driven technologies means that delivering an enhanced service is more achievable than ever before, however it is also more complex and fraught with potential costs and risk. The internet introduces customers to a new perception of business time as always “on available 24/7, and demanding an urgent

and rapid response. The challenge for managers is to reconcile their business and their own personal perceptions of time with the perceived reality of internet time. The internet has decisively shifted the balance of power to the customer.

The internet is revolutionizing sales techniques and perceptions of leading brands, and the internet is intensifying competition in all its forms.

Banking are continuing to use the internet to add value for their customers; but in order for this to work effectively – maximizing opportunities, reducing risks and overcoming problems

– an E-Banking strategy is required as an impact.

The growth of the Web and Internet as new channels, the growth in their use by customers, the growth in their use by customers, and the floor of companies entering the market, presents a series of key challenges to companies. It is easy and cheap to put up a website. But to create an environment delivering effective service on the Web to a significant proportion of your customer base requires an E-Banking strategy.

Computerized banking offers different online services like balance enquiry, request for cheque books, recording stop payment instructions, balance transfer instructions, account opening and other form of transitional Banking services.

1.2.   Statement of the Problem

In Nigeria, customers of banks today are no longer about safety of their funds and increase returns on their investments only. Customers demand efficient, fast and convenient services. Customers want a Bank that will offer them services that will meet their particular needs (personalized Banking) and support their Business goals for instance; businessmen want to travel without carryout cash for security reasons. They want to be able to check their balance online, find out if a cheque is cleared, transfer funds among accounts and even want to download transaction records into their own computer at work or home. Customers want a preferential treatment and full attention by their choice Bank. All these are only achievable through computerized banking.

In line with rendering qualities and acceptable services that most Banks in Nigeria are gearing toward and investing large sum of  money in  information and communication Technology, expectedly such Banks services have been improved. United Bank for Africa (UBA), Zenith Bank, GT Bank (to mention few) are in the forefront in the use of IT in rendering services to their Customers (The Guardian Newspaper April 18, 2008p 21). It also

seeks the challenges involved in Computerized banking and Best industrial practice and the approach of implementing them in Nigeria Banking system. While also S

1.3.   Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this research work is to examine impact of computerized banking in Nigeria banking system on how difference channels could enhance the delivery of consumers and retails products, and also how Banks choose to support their Computerized banking component/services internally, such as internet services provider, Internet banking software, Core banking vendor, Managed security service provider, Bill payment provider, Credit Business and Credit scoring company, E-Banking systems rely on a number of common components or process

Specifically the study objectives are;

I.      To evaluate the prospects of computerized banking in Unity bank PLC II.         To evaluate the impact of computerized banking in Unity Bank PLC

III.      To examine whether computerized banking has improve the fortune of the Bank.

IV.      To examine the effect of computerized banking has it improve the fortune of the bank.

V.      To examine whether the Bank computerized banking guideline comply with the CBN

computerized banking guideline policy.

1.4.   Statement of Research Questions

Since the release by CBN, August 2003 and the subsequent policy on the guideline of

Computerized banking system in Nigeria,

One of the question that currently being addressed is the impact of computerized banking on the traditional banking players; there are two views that are prevalent in the Market. The controversies that the internet is a revolution that will sweep away the old order, argument in are as follow;

•    Computerized banking transactions are much cheaper than branch transactions. Banks are easy to set up with lots of new entrants. ‘Old world’ systems, cultures and structures will not encumber these new entrants; instead they will be adaptable and responsive. Computerized banking gives consumers much more choice and consumers will be less inclined to remain loyal.

•    Deposits will go elsewhere because these banks will have to fight to regain their customer base. There would be increase in their cost of funds, making their businesses less viable.

•    Portal providers are likely to attract the most significant share of banking profits.

•    Traditional banks will find it difficult to evolve; they will be unable to obtain additional capital from stock market.

E-Banking as an Evolution than a revolution;

1.5.   Research Hypothesis

The following hypotheses are formulated in null form to guild the study.

1.  Hο: Computerized banking does have prospect in Unity Bank Plc

: Computerized banking does not have prospect in Unity Bank Plc

2.  Ho: Computerized banking does impact in Unity Bank Plc

: Computerized banking does not impact in Unity Bank Plc

3.  Ho: Adoption of Computerized banking does enhance the fortune of Unity Bank Plc

: Adoption of Computerized banking does not enhance the fortune of Unity Bank Plc

4.  Ho: Computerized banking does improve Bank Customer relationship

: Computerized banking does not improve Bank Customer relationship

5.  Ho: The Bank computerized banking guideline does comply with the CBN computerized banking guideline.

: The Bank computerized banking guideline does not comply with the CBN computerized banking guideline.

1.6.   Significance of the Study

The study would enable the banks executives and indeed the policy makers of the banks and financial institutions to be aware of computerized banking as a product of electronic commerce with a view to making strategic decisions. The research is equally significant because it  would provide answers to  factors militating against the  implementation of

computerized banking in Unity Bank Plc; prove the success and growth associated with implementation of computerized banking highlight the areas of banking operations that can be enhanced via computerized banking and also be an invaluable tool for Students, Academician, institutions, Corporate managers and individuals that want to know more about computerized banking trends especially in Nigeria.

1.7.   Scope of the Study

In pursuance of the objective of the study; attention shall be focused on computerized banking among other electronic commerce implementation. In order to conduct an empirical investigation into the adoption of Computerized banking in Nigeria and will also examine the nature of computerized banking operations in Unity Bank Plc from 2007 to 2009.

1.8.   Limitation of the Study

In view of the technicalities involved, it would be unrealistic to assume that all necessary facts have been gathered in the process of the study. Information gathered is limited to those accesses and made available by the respondents and also those gathered from end users. However, the impacts of this limitation will be reduced to the barest


1.9.   Definition of Related Terms

Access Products Products that allow consumers to access traditional payment instrument electronically, generally from remote locations.

ATM Card – UB Debit Card is a Chip device consisting of circuit element on single silicon chip. The Card a complex circuits that process microprocessors with a single chips that contain the complete arithmetic and logic unit of computers. It provided for Unity Bank customers to perform balance inquiry, mini statement and cash withdrawal as well as transfers through the use of Automated Teller Machines. This green card can also be used for Internet/Online and POS transactions.

Chip Card – Also known as an integrated circuit (IC) Card. A card containing one or more computers chips or integrated circuits for identification, data storage or special purpose processing used to validate personal identification numbers, authorize purchases, verify account balances and store personal records.

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) – The transfer of information between organizations in machine readable form.

Electronic Money – Monetary value measured in currency units stored in electronic form on an electronic device in the consumer’s possession. This electronic value can be purchased and held on the device until reduced through purchase or transfer.

Electronic Recruitment –This is  an  online recruitment services     to  all  kinds and categories of clients such as (Army, navy, police and the Paramilitary) through customizable  web  portals  and  the  use  of  scratch  cards/PINs  for  a  Prospective applicants simply buy the scratch cards, visit portal and fill relevant information. Information collected about applicants could then be analyzed appropriately using ‘what if’ capabilities and filtered according to several criteria to be set by client. Short listed applicants could then be contacted automatically via email or SMS or both.

Electronic Web Collection – This enables the Bank partner with Universities and higher               institutions   of    learning   to    handle   Admission,   Registration,    Examination Managements and Fees Collection needs. Electronic Admission by Prospective Candidates, Electronic School Fees Payment, Automated Registration, Examination and Results Publication/Management

Internet Banking- This is a product that enables the Bank leverage on the Internet Banking System Module in-built on the new Banking Application (BANKS) implemented by the Bank to serve the Internet Banking needs of the Bank’s customers.

Mobile Banking – This is a product that offers Customers of a Bank to access services as you go. Customer can make their transactions anywhere such as account balance, transaction enquiries, stop checks, and other customer’s service instructions, Balance Inquiry, Account Verification, Bill Payment, Electronic fund transfer, Account Balances, updates and history, Customer service via mobile, Transfer between accounts etc.

Payment System – A financial system that establishes that means for transferring money between suppliers and of fund, usually by exchanging debits or Credits between financial institutions.

Point Of Sale (POS) Machine – A Point-of-Sale machine is the payment device that allows credit/debit cardholders make payments at sales/purchase outlets. It allowed customers to perform the following services Retail Payments, Cashless Payments, Cash  Back Balance  Inquiry,  Airtime  Vending,  Loyalty  Redemption,  Printing  mini statement etc.

Smart Card – A Card with a computer chip embedded, on which financial health, educational, and security information can be stored and processed.

Transaction Alert – Our customers carry out debit/credit transactions on their accounts and the need to keep track of these transactions prompted the creation of the alert system by the Bank to notify customers of those transactions. The alert system also serves as notification system to reach out to customers when necessary information need to be communicated.

Western Union Money Transfer (WUMT) – Western union Money transfer is a product that allowed people with relatives in Diaspora who may be remitting money home for family up-keep, Project financing, School fees etc. Nigerian Communities known for having their siblings gainfully employed in other parts of the world are idle markets for Western Union Money Transfer.

1.10. Brief Profile of Unity Bank Plc

Unity Bank PLC is one of the leading retail banks in Nigeria which emerged from the largest merger and consolidation in Nigeria’s banking industry. Following the merger and consolidation of Nine Banks Intercity Bank, First Interstate, Tropical Commercial, Pacific,  Centre  Point,  NNB,  Bank  of  the  North  and  New  Africa  Bank  limited  and spearheaded by the Central Bank of Nigeria, (CBN). The financial institutions with competences in investment banking, corporate and retail banking came together in January 2006 to form Unity Bank Plc. It has 248 business offices spread across the

country and working to increase this number in the nearest future. Unity Bank is the sixth largest bank in Nigeria today by business locations. The Head Office is located at Plot 785, Herbert Macaulay Way, Central Business District, Abuja, while the Head Office Annex is at No. 290A, Akin Olugbade Street, Victoria Island, Lagos. The Mission of the Bank is to create superior wealth for our stakeholders and The Vision is to be one of the top five financial services institutions in Nigeria by 2012.

Vision Driven Strategic Objectives a) Financial

•      Attain a set minimum balance sheet size with respect to Asset size and profitability by the year 2012. This is referred to as 5-in-5 taking it from 2008 to


•      Achieve Industry Top 5 position in rate of “Return on Equity”

•      Achieve Industry Top 5 ratio of Income to cost b) Customer

•    Build a superior customer service environment within Unity Bank c) Technology

•    Significantly improve Technology leverage within the Bank d) Human Capital

•    Build a winning human capacity and spirit e) Retail Focus

•    Build the nation’s number 1 retail Bank

Business Values:  Teamwork – The Bank has all levels of staff within the bank work together to ensure that the commitments to stakeholders are delivered;  Passion – The Bank is driven by the desire to exceed the qualitative and quantitative expectations of his customers; Resourcefulness – The Personnel’s are ingenious and imaginative in seeking solutions to  issues; Integrity –  The Personnel’s                                                                                         are  forthright in  all  their dealings  with  internal  and  external  customers  and  partners;  Dependability  –  The Customers of the Bank’s can always count on its reliability and loyalty;  Empathy – Unity Bank holds itself to the enduring principle of showing respect and compassion to all;

Excellence – While the Bank seek to create and raise standards in the dealings for



Following the impressive performance of the subsidiaries, a Management retreat was

held in February, 2009 where it was agreed that Unity Bank and its compendium of subsidiaries be adopt an Integrated Group Structure. Therefore, Unity Bank Plc and its subsidiaries will adopt a new nomenclature that includes “Group”. This is now ‘UNITY BANK GROUP’. The members of this Group include:


1) Unity Capital & Trust Limited

2) Caranda Management Services LTD

3) Unity Registrars LTD

4) Northlink Insurance Brokers LTD

5) Newdevco Investments & Securities LTD

6) UnityKapital Assurance PLC

7) Pelican Prints LTD

8) Unity Bank BDC

9) Hexali Properties Limited


1. FUG Pension LTD

2. Kakawa Discount House LTD

3. First Securites Discount House LTD

4. Banque Internationale Du Benin, Cotonou, Benin Republic

5. African Export-Import Bank,Cairo-Egypt



The Bank’s operation is divided into five zones, namely: Lagos & South West, North

West, Central, North East and South.

Each of the Zones is headed by a Group Executive Director or a Zonal Head. The Zones are further broken for operational efficiency into eighteen (18) Regional Offices across  the  country.  This  helps  in  maintaining one  of  the  fastest  decision  making processes in the industry today.

Service Efficiency– Unity Bank Plc service efficiency is more practical, meaning the business values are embedded with new thinking on the minds of our employees. The Personnel believe is that the behaviour of the people at the point of service will define the reputation. This will impact on the success of the business. The acculturation process was conceived to communicate the new brand values across board, establish clear line-of sight between our daily operations and the vision of the entire business. It aims to create verifiable monitoring processes and platforms for continuous training of our employees to ensure long-term sustainability. We have created a quality assurance system to ensure consistency in the application of our corporate brand assets bank- wide. We are confident that teamwork can be further enhanced when the fidelity of such assets are maintained without compromise in all the locations where we have established business. To us, such discipline is the surest way to sustain the desired blend of physical assets with the intangible attributes and brand values that our new assets are designed to communicate without words.                                                                                                      Unity Bank’s rebranding is a product of an innate desire to build a distinct banking service identity by redefining what we stand for, what we can do and what we can achieve through team work and continuous talent development geared at exceeding customer satisfaction.

Products: Complimenting the time-tested fare of banking products (Consumer and Corporate) Unity Bank offer Products & Channels Division is strongly positioned with a bouquet of electronic products and solutions to help drive the retail banking initiatives. To enhance service delivery we deployed 124 active and functioning ATM machines across the 6 geopolitical zones of the nation. The Bank has an arrangement to deploy

1000 ATMs jointly with CHAMS. Other products are as listed below; Unity Bank Plc has

a functional, fully equipped and staffed customer contact/call centre. This has satisfactorily handled and provided solutions to customer inquiries, prompt response and resolutions to customers’ complaints, after service follow-up calls, hence achieving and giving customers the ‘personal banking feel’

Technology: The Banking application known as BANKS’ runs on the latest oracle 10g platform with capability for multiple sequences and responses. The application is highly integrated  embedded  with  straight-Through-Processing (STP)  features  deployed  in web-enabled architecture. The application is sitting on the state-of-the-art Real Application Cluster (RAC) servers. This has made it possible for all our 248 branches to provide services 24/7 online real-time as they are linked via a robust network platform comprising fiber optic, high speed RADIO and VSAT. There are other applications deployed  which  are  equally  functioning  effectively  and  are  assisting  the  Bank  in providing efficient customer-focused services to the growing clientele pan-Nigeria.

Rebranding: Recently, Unity Bank Plc rebranded, the Bank has modified the corporate signature and changed colour schemes to capture the essence of the distinctive attributes and values that will define the way the Bank run their business in the medium and long-term. The objective is to create a refreshing and reinvigorating “look and feel” through our new corporate brand assets. Our strategy is to drive our reputational capital by building a corporate perception of meaningful partnership with our stakeholders and embedding a new culture that is driven by competent talent and characterized                                                                                                           by quality service and improved systems and processes expected of a 21st century bank. The Re-branding of  Unity Bank has  equally resulted in  significant changes to  the architecture of the business premises nation-wide. The aim is to create natural warmth to dilute the rigid seriousness that is peculiar to most business environments.


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