A STUDY OF PERSONAL VALUES AND VALUE SYSTEMS OF SCIENCE AND SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENTS IN LAGOS STATE UNIVERSITY

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A STUDY OF PERSONAL VALUES AND VALUE SYSTEMS OF SCIENCE AND SOCIAL SCIENCE STUDENTS IN LAGOS STATE UNIVERSITY

CHAPTER ONE

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Value System and Standard of Education in Nigerian

Third Generation Universities: Implications for

Counselling

Omeje, Joachim Chinweike & Eyo, Mfon Edet

Abstract

This research was a correlation study of value system and standard of

university education in third generation universities in South-South

geopolitical zone. It sought to answer five research questions which

were derived from the five specific purposes of the study. Five

research hypotheses were also formulated and tested. A sample of 200

students were randomly drawn from the population of 7620 first year

and final year undergraduates of the Faculties of Education of the

University of Uyo and the Rivers state University of Science and

Technology, Port Harcourt. The instrument consisted of a Value

Measurement Inventory (VMI) and the school record. The data was

analysed using mean, Pearson Product correlation coefficient and ttest.

The findings indicated a significant and positive relationship

between the value system of the undergraduates and the standard of

university education.

Introduction

Value is a philosophical concept, diverse in nature and controversial

in content. Different schools of thought differ on issues like definition

of value, forms/classification of value, subjectivity/objectivity of

value, what is of value etc. Despite its controversial nature, it is still

widely acknowledged as an influential factor in the affairs of human

being. It is reputed to have the ability of influencing human being,

propelling them into doing certain things while avoiding doing others.

Value is an underlying factor in the concept of choice; it is as intrinsic

to human being as rationality; it determines what is cherished or

refused; it decides what is rejected or accepted. Little wonder, Carl

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Rogers defined value as the tendency to show preference (Okafor,

1992).

Value may be positive or negative. This is however a function of the

society; as what is considered a positive value in one society may be a

negative value in another society. For instance, same-sex marriage,

involving gay and lesbian relationships, is seen as a negative value in

Nigeria, but it is a positive value in Belgium where same-sex marriage

is legalized nation-wide. This position of positive and negative value

being a function of the society is with no prejudice to the fact that

there are some values that are positive or negative across the different

biases-across religious, social, cultural, geographical boundaries etc.

Example of such value is the sanctity of human life which is a positive

value across different biases.

It suffices to state here that the definition given above encompasses

the positive and negative forms of value. It is therefore pertinent to

give a description that sifts the positive from the negative forms of

value. For a value to be seen as positive both the set goals and the

means of attaining them should be good, worthwhile and desirable,

socially acceptable and legally permissible. The reverse is negative

value. Viewed in this perspective, value encompasses the norms and

ethics of any given society. If value has a role to play in setting goals

and choosing means of realizing these goals, value therefore has a role

to play in the teaching-learning process. Of course, the set goals and

the procedures adopted to achieve the goals, in the educational

process, influence the outcome of the educational process.

Researchers investigated the relationship between values and

academic achievement. In a bold attempt made in this direction,

Mogor (1977) investigated the relationship between personal values

and scholastic achievement. His findings indicated a positive

relationship between personal values of students and their scholastic

achievement. This finding however contrasted a similar investigation

conducted earlier. Nwachukwu (1974) studied values and academic

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achievement; and his findings indicated no relationship between a

student’s value orientation and his academic achievement. The

variability in these findings provided a justification for another study

in this area. In addition, both studies were done at the secondary

school level. There was therefore the need to conduct a similar study

at the tertiary level of education. These conditions consolidated the

need and importance of the present study.

According to the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria,

1999, dignity of labour, integrity, religious tolerance, and self-reliance

amongst other are attributes that are considered as values in the

national ethos. That they are cherished as values means that they are

positive. The National Policy on Education (NPE) (2004) also

specifies values system acceptable in the country and should thus be

inculcated in the learners through the quality of educational

instruction. These include moral/spiritual values, dignity of human

person, self-reliance, and communal responsibility, amongst others. It

particularly tasks tertiary institutions to “develop and inculcate proper

values” (NPE, 2004:36) implying that there are improper or negative

values that should be nipped in the bud.

Furthermore, though the Constitution of the Federal Republic of

Nigeria, 1999 and the NPE (2004) specify value system acceptable in

the country, it is worth mentioning that the values enshrined in a

document or professed openly might differ from what is being

practiced or exhibited. These were what Okafor (1992) called

conceived and operative values respectively. Specifically, conceived

value refers to the ideal values that are professed openly while the real

behavioural exhibitions and actions are the operative value. Apart

from these two national documents, which give the conceived value of

the Nigeria society, researchers also identified the Nigeria value

system through the scientific approach. Ella (1993) investigated the

value system in Idomaland. His findings showed that “respect for

elders, dignity of labour, chastity among women folk, patriotism,

hospitality, self-reliance and courage were positive values…in Idoma

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traditional value system.” This can be extrapolated to represent the

value system of a traditional Nigerian society.

However, there has been increasing concerns over the trend of value

system in the society generally. In Nigeria, many wondered if the

character aspect of assessing a candidate before conferring a degree by

Nigerian university on such candidate is still being considered as a

serious factor “given the values of graduates in workplace, the

incidents of cult violence, examination malpractices etc. that have

come to become pronounced aspects of the public view of the

contemporary Nigerian university” (Utomi, 2000:260). Pelikan

(1992), as cited in Utomi, also comments on this widely spread

eroding values. Describing the concern as “university bashing,” he

observed that it has become so regular that the “bashing” has turn to a

cottage industry, “with books bearings such titles as professors and

the Demise of Higher Education, Tenured Radicalism: How politics

has Corrupted our Higher Education, Killing the Spirit, Illiberal

Education, and The Moral Collapse of the University appearing one

after the another” (Utomi, 2000:258). Whether these fears are justified

or misplaced, they indicate a conscious acknowledgement of the place

of value in university education.

In his study, Ella (1993) reported “a wind of change which tend to

erode the quality of the Idoma traditional value system” (Ella,

1993:2). Other researchers express similar sentiment on the present

Nigerian value system. According to Ukeje (2002), indiscipline and

corruption have invaded the strata of our national ethics. He lamented

that in today’s Nigeria, “ethnicity, lack of patriotism, indiscipline and

corruption abound in all strata” (Ukeje, 2002:20). In the same vein,

violence, laxity in sexual morality, obsession for money/materialism

etc have been identified as constituting our present day value system

(Gana, 2002). President Olusegun Obasanjo added to the weight of the

presumptions that there are value crises in our society when he listed

corruption, armed robbery, cultism, amongst others as some of the

vices threatening the social fabric of the Nigerian society. He

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observed that these contribute to “instability and weakening of all

public institutions” (Obasanjo, 2003; Obasanjo, 2003a; Obasanjo,

1999). These negative values are not only present but seem

widespread.

But to what extent has the university been affected by this trend?

Some stakeholders were of the view that the university is not faring

any better from the fate of the society. There seems to be a popular

opinion that educational institutions that were supposed to be the

custodians of the cherished values have been invaded and is

contaminated by vices such as forgery/admission irregularities,

cultism and senseless killings, examination malpractices, nude

dressing and shameless indulgence in sophisticated harlotry, amongst

others (Amao-kehinde, 2003; Okebukola, 2003; Gana, 2002; Nwana,

2000). A weeklong national Summit on Higher Education “noted the

existence of deep-rooted social vices in Nigerian tertiary institutions

that include indiscipline, cultism examination malpractice, rape,

apathy to work, extortion, excessive unionism amongst others”

(Olatunji, 2002).

The public is generally concerned on tertiary education, and university

education in particular (Hughes, 1998, Ginkel. 1998). This concern,

and the acknowledgement of the place of value in the realization of

the goals of education consolidated the justification for this study,

which sought to establish the relationship between the value system of

the undergraduates and the standard of education in the universities.

As a result of the importance of standard in university education,

deliberate measures were taken by different countries to ensure and

improve standard (Sim and Idrus, 2004; Mathus, 2001; Department

for Education and Skills (DFES), 2001). In Nigeria, while there is a

general opinion on the eroding value system, there is a corresponding

outcry over the decline in the standard of education Akpofure and

N’dupu (2000) listed some factors hindering the maintenance of

standard in university education. These included.

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Value System and Standard of Education in Nigerian Third Generation Universities…

Poorly planned expansion and enrolment, grossly

inadequate funding and management of resources,

policy instability, inadequate political commitment

to quality and to implementation of vital measures

and even a lack of real awareness of the impact of

certain policy decisions on the system” (Akpofure

and N’dupu, 2000: 128).

Researchers and experts also noted the sliding quality of university

education. They attributed the state of affairs to divers factors ranging

from poor funding, decayed infrastructures, poor teaching quality to

inadequate instructional materials. Other factors identified as

contributing to the poor quality include poorly paid and poorly trained

academic staff, unplanned enrollment expansion, outdated and

insufficient equipment, irrelevant curriculum, and irregular school

calendar (Achi, 2004; Anwabor, 2003; Nnadozie, 2003; Olatunji,

2002; Ajao, 2001; Ogunleye, 2001; Ogefere, 2001). Quite noteworthy

is the fact that few of these experts made mention of personal

commitment and value system of the students as a factor in the

eroding standard of university education (Ajao, 2001). The research

was therefore an identification of the relationship between the value

system of the university students and the standard of university

education.

Research Questions

The questions that the researchers posed to guide the study are:

(1) What is the extent of relationship between the value system of

the undergraduates and the standard of university education as

measured by their academic achievement?

(2) How does the academic achievement of undergraduates with

positive value system differ from those with negative value

system?

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Omeje, Joachim C. & Eyo, Mfon Edet

(3) How does the academic achievement of male undergraduates

with positive values system differ from their female

counterparts with positive value system?

Research Hypotheses

Three null hypotheses derived from the research questions were

formulated to guide the study. They were formulated and tested at.0.5

level of significance. These include the proposition that:

(1) There is no significant relationship between the value system

of the undergraduates and the standard of university education

as measured by their academic achievement.

(2) There is no significant difference between the academic

achievement by undergraduates with positive value system

and those with negative value system.

(3) There is no significant difference between the academic

achievement of male undergraduates with positive value

system and their female counterpart with positive value

system.

The present study is significant in a number of ways. Indeed, the value

system of any society determines the dynamics of such society. These

dynamics include the process for the fulfilment or otherwise of

national yearnings and aspirations. A study that therefore aimed at

establishing the relationship between the value system of the

undergraduates and the standard of education can therefore be said to

be invaluable. Indeed this study is a major contributor to national

development as it sought to establish the influence of a crucial factor

on the standard of the determinant of national development, which in

turn would help to shape the standard for the better.

Methodology

The study adopted a correlational design. It adopted a correlational

design because the study sought to establish the relationship between

the value system of the undergraduates and the standard of university

education.

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This study was targeted at the third generation universities in the

south-south geopolitical zone. The south-south geopolitical zone is

one of the six geopolical zones in the Federal Republic of Nigeria. It

is made up of six states including Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Cross River,

Delta, Edo and River States.

There are 54 universities in Nigeria. These include 25 Federal

Universities, 19 States Universities, and 10 private Universities. More

so, Universities that were established up to 1970 are categorized as

first generation Universities. Those that were established between

1971 and 1975 are grouped as second-generation Universities. Other

Universities outside the above two categories are seen as third

generation Universities. The south-south geopolitical zone has a total

of 10 Universities. These include four Federal Universities, four state

universities, and two private universities (JAMB 2004). With respect

to generation of establishment, the zone has seven third generation

universities. However, the study delimited itself to two thirdgeneration

universities in the south-south geopolitical zone-the

University of Uyo and the River State University Science and

Technology Port Harcourt.

The population for this study was the first year and final year students

of 2004/2005 academic session in the Faculties of Education in the

University of Uyo and the Rivers State University of Science and

Technology, Port Harcourt. It included the male and female students

of these faculties with no consideration to intelligence, tribe, socioeconomic

status or religion.

There were 178 and 3,369 first year students in the University of Uyo

and the River State University of Science and Technology

respectively in the Faculties of Education for year 2004/2005

academic session. Also there were 194 and 3,879 final year students in

the University of Uyo and the Rivers State University of Science and

Technology respectively in the Faculties of Education for year

2004/2005 academic session. Therefore, the population of this study

was 7620 first year and final year students in the Faculties of

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Education of the two universities as described above (data obtained

personally from the Education Faculty Officers of the two

universities).

The sample of this study was two hundred first year and final year

students in the Faculties of Education of the University of Uyo and the

River State University of Science and Technology. This was made of

one hundred students in each of the revels in the two Universities. The

students were drawn through simple random sampling.

At each of the levels in each of the schools, the researcher liaised with

a lecturer handling a faculty course that was compulsory to all the

students in the affected level. At the time for such lecture, the

researcher joined the lecturer to the class. When the students were

seated, equal sizes of paper, already cut and labelled up to 50 and the

rest left blank, were presented to the students to pick. Those that

picked the labelled ones were taken as the sample. This procedure was

used for both the first year and final year students in the affected

universities.

More so, first year and final year students from the Faculty of

Education in these universities were chosen for this study via stratified

random sampling. The first year and the final year students are in the

“transition state” in the universities. The first year witnessed transition

from the society to a university life, while the final year students

transit from the university to the reality of life in the society. They

were therefore viewed as a good combination for a research that has to

do with values, a concept that has influence on both the university and

the society. Simple random sampling was used in choosing the two

universities.

Instrument

The instrument used in this study was a questionnaire called Value

Measurement Inventory (VMI). This instrument was used to elicit

data on the value scores of the students. School continuous assessment

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record was used to get the academic achievement scores of the

students.

The researchers for this study developed the VMI. It has three

sections, named A, B, and C. The first section is an introductory note

that introduced the questionnaire to the respondents. The second

section elicited from the respondents’ data on personal information

and location. This included the university, gender of the respondent,

year of study etc. The last section is a 15-item construct that elicited

information on the values scores of the respondents. The section C of

the VMI is a Likert-like scale of measurement but with four points on

the scale. These four options formed the scoring pattern of the

instrument. Strong concurrence with the position of an item on the

questionnaire was given as STRONGLY AGREE and had a maximum

of one point; thus was followed by AGREE, two points, DISAGREE,

three points; while STRONGLY DISAGREE had four points. These

points were utilized in statistically manipulations, which provided the

bases for answering the research questions and testing the hypotheses.

Furthermore, the academic achievement of the respondents was

obtained on the continuous assessment score of one of the compulsory

general courses in the faculty. Where the scores were more than one

the average performance was taken. Moreso, where there was no

continuous assessment score, a lecturer handling a general course in

the faculty was encouraged to administer a test on the students; the

scores of which was used as the academic achievement of the

respondents. The continuous assessment score was converted to

percentage to serve as the academic achievement of the respondents.

Reliability of the Instrument

In order to ascertain the reliability of the instrument, the VMI was

administered on 20 final year students of the Department of

Educational Foundations, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The data

generated was tested with Cronbach statistics, and the reliability was

found to be 0.87. The internal consistency of the VIP was therefore

adjudged to be reliable.

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Procedures

The instrument was administered by the researchers on the sampled

population in the different universities. The researchers personally

approached the Faculty Officers of the Faculty of Education in the two

universities and asked for approval to administer the questionnaire on

the first and final year students of the 2004/2005 academic session.

On getting the approval, the researchers then met a lecturer in the

faculty that was handling one of the faculty courses that involve the

entire students in the respective levels. At the time of such lecture, the

researchers joined the lecturer to the venue of the lecture. When the

students were all seated, the researchers liaised with the lecturer to

compose the sample as described earlier. After the composition of the

sample, the lecturer then introduced the researchers who addressed the

respondents, explained the purpose and importance of the study,

assured them of confidentiality, before administering the

questionnaire to them. The researchers administered the questionnaire

personally. This direct delivery technique had the multiple advantages

of ensuring large scale return of the questionnaire.

The researchers also got the continuous assessment score of the

respondents on the affected course from the affected lecturers. Where

the scores were more than one, the average score was used; and where

there was none, the lecturer was encouraged to administer a test on the

students. This served as a measurement of the academic achievement

of the respondents.

The data gathered and collated were analyzed using Pearson’s Product

Moment correlation coefficient, means and standard deviation, to

provide answers to the research questions.

Based on the four-point scale of the VMI, 2.50 was used as the

criterion value. The value score for each respondent was the mean

score of the respondent to the items on the VMI. This mean was then

compared with the criterion value to decide on which respondent had

a positive or negative value. If a respondent had a mean score of 2.50

or below, such respondent was considered as having a negative value

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system; if the respondent had a mean score above 2.50, the respondent

was considered as having a positive value system.

The t-test was used in testing the formulated hypotheses two and three

at .05 level of significance, while Pearson product moment correlation

matrix was used to test hypothesis one at .01 level of significance

Results

Research Question 1

The results of the analysis of research question 1 showed that there

was a strong and high relationship between the value system of the

undergraduates and the standard of university education as measured

by their academic achievement. From the presentation in the table 1, it

is quite clear that there is a strong and high relationship between the

value system of the undergraduates and the standard of university

education as measured by their academic achievement. This is

discernible from the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient

(r) of 0.713, which indicates high relationship. The relationship can

also be explained using the coefficient of determinate, represented as

r2. The r2 of 50.8% implies that the value system of the undergraduates

account for 50.8% of their academic achievement. The significance of

this relationship can be established by testing for the hypothesis

derived from research question 1

The Pearson correlation coefficient for the relationship between the

two variables is .713. It is also shown in the table 2 that the

probability is .000 while .0.5 is the level of significance. Since the

probability is less than the alpha, the null hypothesis that there is no

significant relationship between the value system of the

undergraduates and the standard of university education as measured

by their academic achievement is rejected.

Research Question 2

The results of the analysis of the research question 2 showed that the

academic achievement of undergraduates with positive value system

differs from those with negative value system. Also the formulated

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hypothesis used to throw more light on the question showed that there

was significant difference between the academic achievement of

undergraduates with positive value system and those with negative

value system.

As indicated in table 3, from the sample of 200 undergraduates used

for the study, 143 were identified as having positive value system,

while 57 had negative value system. The mean of academic

achievement of those with positive value system was 70.17 while

43.86 was the mean academic achievement of those with negative

value system. It was clear that the academic achievement of

undergraduates with positive value system differs from those with

negative value system, while an average student with positive value

scored about 70, only 44 was scored on an average by student with

negative value system. The mean difference of 26.32 was quite a big

difference. This research question was transformed into a hypothesis,

whose test is shown on table given.

The table 4 as could be seen showed that the degree of freedom for the

data presented was 198 while 20.29 was the t-calculated. The exact

probability of the calculation is .000 at .05 level of significance. Since

the probability is less than the alpha, the null hypothesis that there is

no significant difference between the academic achievement of

undergraduates with positive value system and those with negative

values system is rejected.

Research Question 3

The results of the analysis of research question 3 showed that there

exist a difference in the academic achievement of male

undergraduates with positive value system and that of their female

counterpart also with positive value system, with the males

performing better. Also, the hypothesis revealed that there was no

significant difference between the academic achievement of male

undergraduates with positive value system and their female

counterparts with positive vale system.

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From table 5, a total of 143 undergraduates were identified as having

positive value system. This number included 49 males and 94 females.

The mean academic achievement for the males with positive value

system was 71.22 while that of the female was 69.63. The data

indicated a mean difference of 1.60, which cannot be said to be a big

difference. This difference implied that there exists a difference in the

academic achievement of male undergraduates with positive value

system and that of their female counterparts also with positive value

system; with the male undergraduates performing better. However, the

statistical significance or otherwise of this difference can best be

determined by testing the third hypothesis.

Table 6 presents a t-test calculated for the academic achievement of

49 male and 94 female undergraduates with positive value system.

With a degree of freedom of 141, the t is 1.81 at .05 level of

significance. The null hypothesis that there is no significant difference

between the academic achievement of male undergraduates with

positive value system and their female counterparts with positive

value system is upheld as the probability was greater than alpha.

Discussion

The research questions, which guided the study, centered on the extent

of relationship between the value system of the undergraduates and

the standard of university education as measured by their academic

achievement, how the academic achievement of undergraduates with

positive value system differ from those with negative value system,

and how the academic achievement of male undergraduates with

positive value system differ from their female counterparts with

positive value system. The result of the above research questions are

as discussed as follows.

The Relationship between the Value System of the

Undergraduates and Standard of University Education

The first finding of the study was the answer to research question one,

which was also transformed into a hypothesis and properly tested.

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This research question sought to find out the extent of relationship

between the value system of the undergraduates and the standard of

university education as measured by their academic achievement? The

finding indicated that the extent of the relationship was high, with

value system accounting for about 51% of the academic achievement

of the undergraduates. This high relationship between the value

system of the undergraduates and the standard of university education

was also tested and known to be statistically significant. This

statistically significant, strong and high relationship between the value

system of the undergraduates and the standard of university education

as measured by their academic achievement, as indicated by this

study, contradict the findings of Nwachukwu (1974). The said

findings by Nwachukwu indicated that there was no relationship

between the value orientation of students and their academic

achievement. The first finding however corroborated and supportd the

findings of Mogor (1977). In his own study, Mogor discovered a

positive relationship between personal values of students and their

scholastic achievement.

Academic achievement of undergraduates with positive value system

and those with negative value system

The second finding of this study emerged in an attempt to provide

answer to research question two. The said research question sought to

find out if the academic achievement of the undergraduates with

positive value system differs from those with negative value system.

The second finding indicated that the academic achievement of

undergraduates with positive value differ from those with negative

value system. It also indicated that the difference between the

academic achievement of undergraduates with positive value system

and those with negative value system was significant, implying that

the difference was not due to chance. This finding consolidated the

first finding. It established that not only was there a positive and

strong association between value system and academic achievement

of undergraduates but also that those with positive value system

perform academically better than those with negative value system. If

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there was a statistically significant difference between the academic

achievement of undergraduates with positive value system and those

with negative value system, it therefore implied that the value system

was strongly related to academic achievement. This finding was at

variance with the findings of Bassey (1991). Bassey sought to find out

the relationship between discipline and academic performance of

secondary school students and discover that there was no statistically

significant difference between the academic performance of

undisciplined and disciplined students. But the findings of this present

study agreed and supported the finding of Etuki (1989) and Stephen

(1977). Stephen noted in his findings that students who exhibited

socially acceptable conduct performed significantly better than those

with poor behaviour and conduct. On his part, Etuki discovered in his

study that disciplined students performed better academically than

undisciplined students. It was quite obvious that socially acceptable

conduct and discipline on the one hand, and poor behaviour and

discipline on the other hand can be taken to represent positive and

negative value systems respectively.

The academic achievement of male undergraduates with positive

value system and their female counterparts with positive value system

Furthermore, the study also gave finding with respect to gender

difference on value and standard of education. The third finding

indicated that there exists a difference, though small, in the academic

achievement of male undergraduates with positive value system and

that of their female counterparts also with positive value system; with

the male undergraduates performing better. It also established that this

difference between the academic achievement of male and female

undergraduates with positive value system is not statistically

significant, and can thus be ignored and regarded as being due to

chance. Gender was therefore not a factor on the extent of the

relationship between the value system of the undergraduates and

standard of university education. This meant that the positive

relationship between the value system and standard of university

education would hold no matter which gender was involved; meaning

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that a male or female student with positive value system would

perform academically better than the counterpart of any gender with

negative value system. This finding indisputably help in generalizing

the findings of this study across the gender divide. This finding agreed

with the findings of Bassey (1991) on the influence of gender factor

on the relationship between indiscipline and academic performance of

secondary school students. Bassey reported that there was no

significant difference between the academic performance of

undisciplined male and female students.

Implication and Recommendations

The findings of this study have far-reaching implications for

education. It has established that there was a significant and positive

relationship between the value system of the undergraduates and the

standard of university education. The hue and cry over low standard

of university education implies that the value system of the

undergraduates is negative. The implication of this is that the

curriculum contents of university education may not have been

fashion out to deliberately support the acquisition of positive value

system. It also implied that where there was such provision in the

curriculum, the objective has not been realized.

Another implication of the findings of this study was that poor

standard of university education was traceable to the preponderance of

negative value system amongst the undergraduates. This can be

extrapolated to mean that the universities may have taken the issue of

value with levity. This is confirmed by the public alarm on the fate of

university education, an indication that all was not well with the value

system of the undergraduates.

The present study was limited by the difficulty of not only getting the

respondents to attend to the questionnaire but also gathering them to

write a continuous assessment test where none had been given

already. Furthermore, the results could have been different if the

influence of socio economic status on the relationship between value

171

Value System and Standard of Education in Nigerian Third Generation Universities…

system and standard of university education was included in the

variables investigated. The researchers then suggest such area for

further research.

Equally, the study recommends that the National Orientation Agency

(NOA), the agency of government that is vested with the issue of

value reorientation amongst others, should liaise with the different

institutions of learning to come up with efficacious value reorientation

programmes targeted at not only the students but the Nigerian

citizenry.

HOW TO RECEIVE PROJECT MATERIAL(S)

After paying the appropriate amount (#5,000) into our bank Account below, send the following information to

08068231953 or 08168759420

(1)    Your project topics

(2)     Email Address

(3)     Payment Name

(4)    Teller Number

We will send your material(s) after we receive bank alert

BANK ACCOUNTS

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 0046579864

Bank: GTBank.

OR

Account Name: AMUTAH DANIEL CHUKWUDI

Account Number: 3139283609

Bank: FIRST BANK

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL:

08068231953 or 08168759420

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