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THE EFFECT OF JOB SATISFACTION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF NURSING EDUCATORS AMONG NURSING FACULTIES IN WEST BANK
Aim: This study considered as an exploratory for the level of job satisfaction among nursing educators in West Bank nursing faculties and effect of it on their performance.
Background: There are several influences affect the performance of teachers, and job satisfaction considered as one of them. Previous studies shown that present of positively correlated between job satisfaction and job performance.
Method: Quantitative, exploratory and descriptive designe used to conduct this study, sample of the study were (64) nursing educators (39 F, 25 M) working in West Bank nursing faculties to period more than one study course. These are An-Najah national university, Al-Quds University, Bethlehem University, Hebron University, Arab American University-Jenin, Berziet University and Nursing faculty at Ibn Sina colleges.
Results: The result of this study were, presence of difference in job satisfaction according to variables ( age, gender, qualification, job status, nature of the work, academic rank, years of experience, career center, and workplace), and no differences according to social status. Presence of positive correlations between variables ( work conditions, direct president, administration, and salary & retirement system) and job satisfaction. Also presence of positive correlation between job satisfaction and job performance.
Conclusion: This study contributes to understanding differences in job satisfaction level according to socio-demographic variables, and effect of work conditions, direct president, administration, and salary & retirement system on job satisfaction. Finally effect of job satisfaction on job performance.
Key wards: Job Satisfaction,Performance, Nursing Educators, Nursing Faculties.
Nursing Education consider as one of the main disciplines that provide the community with qualified health care providers, which lead to promote the quality of health care system in community. It consists of theoretical & practical training provided to nursing student to prepare them for their duties as health care professionals. This education provided to students by experienced nursing teachers & other medical professionals who have qualified or experienced for educational task to develop a lifelong learner who can adapt effectively to changes in both the theory and practice of nursing.
Nursing education developed through many stages before reaching the current status to be studied at university level. Nursing started as job training practice which gradually moved to practical training, then developed to be granted as Diploma through hospital affiliated schools of nursing (McLaughlin and Yan 2007; Buzieh 2010). In the same words Hegarty et al (2009) described the education of nurses has undergone rapid and progressive change, moving from apprenticeship to a diploma, with many jurisdictions progressing to baccalaureate entry to practice over the last century.
Given recent evidence that teacher quality is very important for student achievement but unrelated to most observable teacher characteristics, motivating teachers to perform well and attracting a pool of high-performing teacher applicants are promising policies to improve student outcomes (Woessmann 2010). When the teachers provide high quality performance this will lead to high quality students, then qualified health care professionals working to promote health care system. There are several influences affect the performance of teachers as other professions and job satisfaction considered as one of them. Job satisfaction or dissatisfaction depends on a large number of factors ranging from where employees have to eat their lunch to the sense of self fulfillment they may receive from doing their jobs (Newby 1999). Previous studies had shown that present of positively correlated between job satisfaction and job performance (Pugno 2009).
The aim of this study is to assess the job satisfaction level of nursing teachers in West Bank faculties and effect of it on their performance.
- Background of the Study:
Job life is one of the important parts of our daily lives which cause a great deal of stress. Due to the competitive nature of the job environment most of the people in the world are spending their time for job related work purposes resulting ignore the stressor those are influencing their work and life (Ahsan et al., 2009). Usually people are more worry about their outcome of their work that can even affect the way they treat other people and how they communicate with their peers and customers (Ahsan et al., 2009). For example, people with a higher percentage of occupational stress may not be satisfied with their job and therefore they will not feel happy working in the organization (Ahsan et al., 2009). They may feel frustrated or “burned out” when they are having problems with peers or customers (Ahsan et al., 2009).
This may leave a negative impact to the organization itself. Therefore, it is very important for employer and employees to realize the stress and the stressor that cause all the negative effects (Ahsan et al., 2009).
Job satisfaction is one of the most widely discussed and enthusiastically studied constructs in such related disciplines as industrial-organizational psychology, organizational behavior, personnel and human resource management and organizational management (Tasnim 2006). It is a generalized affective orientation to all aspects of the job. In simple terms, it is the extent to which one feels good about the job. These feelings were based on the individual’s perceptions of the differences between what was expected as a fair return and what was actually experienced (Newby 1999). The source of job satisfaction is not only the job; it also creates from working environment, supervision style, interpersonal relationship, and organizational culture also (Tasnim 2006).
At present job satisfaction has been an important issue. People are interested to work in the organization as well as the services where they get more satisfaction (Tasnim, 2006). It is human behaviour. But in reality how far such job satisfaction is ensured in different jobs (Tasnim, 2006). Teachers are arguably the most important group of professionals for our nation’s future. Therefore, it is disturbing to find that many of today’s teachers are dissatisfied with their jobs (BISHAY, 1996). Teachers and staff members engaged in nursing activity experience more stress than other workers (MUTO et al., 2006).
Job satisfaction among nurses is great concern throughout the world but the satisfaction of nurse teachers has received less attention and no review of global research on the topic has been published (Gui et al., 2008).
Over the last three decades, nurse education has developed rapidly alongside world economic expansion. Many countries have experienced considerable reform within nurse education systems (Spitzer & Perrenoud, 2006; Gui et al., 2008 ).
Nurse teachers are experiencing the challenge of supporting students transitioning from full time school education to higher education (Gui et al., 2008). Additionally, the role of nurse teachers has changed significantly with the transfer of nurse education from hospital based schools of nursing into universities (Gui et al., 2008). They are expected to teach, undertake research alongside a range of other scholarly activities (e.g. writing for publication, conference papers, consultancy), fulfill an administrative role and, in some instances, support staff in practice as well as provide patient care (Barton, 1998; Gui et al., 2008). These roles are varied and demanding in scope and may influence the level of nurse teachers’ job satisfaction as well as the factors that contribute to job satisfaction or, indeed, job dissatisfaction. Good relationships with students and support from colleagues and management increased their job satisfaction (Gui et al., 2008).
The nurse teachers valued their professional independence to operate in the manner that they considered best, although working conditions (which were not specified) sometimes increased dissatisfaction (Gui et al., 2008). In addition, changes, time pressure, constant work overload and stress as well as a lack of sufficient support and encouragement were reasons for dissatisfaction (Gui et al., 2008). Large teaching groups and continually increasing administrative duties also caused dissatisfaction. The changes in role demands and the conflicts related to the different roles of nurse teachers also impaired their ability to cope, although there were differences between individuals and educational institutions in how work overload was experienced (Gui et al., 2008).
Nursing teachers accept the challenge of helping students successfully navigate the transitions of undergraduate and graduate nursing programs through requisite course work (Wolf et al., 2004). The hope of being an effective teacher impels faculty to create and carry out diverse teaching strategies, follow carefully constructed syllabi, and engage consistently in students’ academic concerns (Wolf et al., 2004). Considerable pride is associated with the reputation of being an effective, excellent teacher (Wolf et al., 2004).
Teaching performance is among the most important issues in education sectors. Consequently, nursing programs conduct student evaluations of faculty performance when courses end. Faculty often awaits the arrival of student evaluations with apprehension, and teaching performance is a particular concern for novice educators (Siler & Kleiner 2001; Wolf et al., 2004). Furthermore, student feedback has motivated and empowered faculty to improve teaching performance (Feldman & Paulsen 1999; Wolf et al., 2004). Faculty considers student evaluations an important indicator of effective teaching (Marsh 1984; Wolf et al., 2004). Negative statements on evaluation forms may affect faculty motivation ( McKeachie, 1997; Wolf et al., 2004).
Tyler & PsyAsia International (2007) Claimed that, job performance concerns the knowledge, skills and attitudes that are required to enable an individual to perform the activities listed in the job description as per the competency profile that a human resource or similar professional may have developed through job analysis. Performance appraisal is used in organizations worldwide as a means to ensure the (at least) adequate performance of employees. It is linked to the entire human resource cycle in that it informs the training and development agenda, is a factor in the remuneration calculation and is inextricably coupled with and derived from job analysis, which itself feeds into the recruitment and selection process.
A diverse spectrum of factors may affect the performance. But, what are exactly ones need attention?. This is a common concern by all organizations in various sectors. Much research effort has been put in search of the clues.
An implication of job satisfaction research throughout the disciplines of social psychology, organizational behavior, and human resource management is the everlasting assumption that job satisfaction and performance should be related (Castillo et al., 1999). Landy (1989) described this relationship as the “Holy Grail” of Industrial psychology (Judge et al., 2001). However, there is no strong acceptance among researchers, consultants, etc., that increased job satisfaction produces improve job performance — in fact, improved job satisfaction can sometimes decrease job performance (http://126.96.36.199/prsn_wll/job_stfy.htm). For example, you could let sometime sit around all day and do nothing. That may make them more satisfied with their “work” in the short run, but their performance certainly didn’t improve (http://188.8.131.52/prsn_wll/job_stfy.htm)
1.2 Problem statement
According to the National League for Nursing (2002), “the nurse educator role is essential to the ongoing development of the profession and the ability of the discipline to meet society’s needs for quality nursing care”. When the nursing educators have lower level of job satisfaction, that tend to lower the quality of nursing teaching and learning, several positive measures should be taken so that poor incidence and bad experience involving teachers could be avoided. Therefore, it is appropriate that more studies be conducted to identify the variables that affect the job satisfaction of nursing educators to promote nursing teaching process.
More specific, this study aim to assess the level of job satisfaction of nursing teachers in West Bank faculties and effect of it on their performance. This study also attempt to look at the role of these variables (socio-demographic variables, work conditions, direct president, administration and salary and retirement system) as correlates to teachers’ job satisfaction.
1.3 Significance of the study:
Job satisfaction among nurses is of concern throughout the world but the satisfaction of nurse teachers has received less attention and no review of global research on the topic has been published (Gui et al., 2008).
Thus the significant of the study will be able to discover the following:
1) The need of this study to be applied here in West Bank due to the importance of it to clarify the variables that affects job satisfaction of nursing teachers to document it to be used by the researchers in this field.
2) There is no study done on the nursing teachers here in West Bank at all (faculties) in this subject so it’s important to be provided to the decision maker to put in their perspective these data during policy making.
3) The findings could be used as inputs to managers of education in planning; developing and implementing programs for the purpose promoting nursing teaching.
4) To provide the teachers themselves and insight them with their problems to take care.
1.4 Purpose of Study:
The main purpose of this study was to assess the job satisfaction level of nursing teachers in West Bank faculties as measured by questionnaire. And the other purpose was to determine the effect of job satisfaction on job performance of nursing teachers in West Bank faculties.
Objectives of the study:
- To determine the relationship between socio-demographic variables and job satisfaction.
- To explore the relationship between work conditions (workload pressure, relationship with coworker and motivations) and job satisfaction.
- To investigate the effect of direct president on job satisfaction.
- To identify the relationship between the administration and job satisfaction.
- To assess the impact of salary and retirement system on job satisfaction.
- To determine the effect of job satisfaction level on the job performance.
1.5 Study Hypothesis
- There is a statistically significance difference about effect of socio-demographic variables on job satisfaction of nursing educators, at significance level (α ≤ 0.05).
- There are differences in job satisfaction level of nursing educators according to work conditions, at significance level (α ≤ 0.05).
- There are differences in job satisfaction level of nursing educators according to direct president, at significance level (α ≤ 0.05).
- There are differences in job satisfaction level of nursing educators according to administration, at significance level (α ≤ 0.05).
- There are differences in job satisfaction level of nursing educators according to salary and retirement system, at significance level (α ≤ 0.05).
- There is a higher rate of job satisfaction that positively related with the total score of job performance of nursing educators, at significance level (α ≤ 0.05).
1.6 Conceptual Definition
Job Satisfaction: In 2000 Riggio believed job satisfaction to be the feelings and attitude one has about his job. He further stated that all aspects of a particular job good and bad, positive and negative are likely to contribute to the development of feelings of satisfaction or dissatisfaction (Olorunsola 2010). Robins (2001) saw job satisfaction as an individual general attitude towards his or her job. And Mullins in 2005 perceived job satisfaction as more of an attitude, an internal state and it could be associated with a personal feelings of achievement either qualitative or quantitative (Olorunsola 2010).
Job performance: Overall performance encompasses all behaviors, task or otherwise, necessary for the successful performance of a job (Coole 2003). Motowidlo, Borman, and Schmidt (1997, pg. 72) define overall job performance as the “aggregated value to the organization of the discrete behavioral episodes that an individual performs over a standard interval of time” (Coole 2003).
Nursing: The act of utilizing the environment of the patient to assist him in his recovery (DeLaune et al., 2002).
Education: Approach tries to identify new knowledge by compulsory training and teaching during schools or universities (Quinn 2001; Buzeih 2010).
Nurse Educator: A career in nursing education provides you with the opportunity to teach in programs that prepare licensed practical nurses (LPN) and registered nurses (RN) for entry into practice positions (Quinn 2001; Buzeih 2010).
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