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INFLUENCE OF TEACHERS’ TRAINING AND EXPERIENCE ON JOB SATISFACTION OF SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS
1.1 Background to the Study
Work motivation is the process that arouses, energizes, directs, and sustains behavior and performance among employees, (Slocum, & Hellriegel, 2009). Work motivation encourages employees internally towards the actions which help them to perform the preferred tasks and employ effectiveness is a way that inspires them to do their work and have commitment towards their jobs. According to Slocum, & Hellriegel, (2009), intrinsic work motivation is the motivation to perform an activity in order to experience the pleasure and satisfaction inherent in the activity. Slocum, & Hellriegel, (2009), espouse that work motivation involves employee compensation, working conditions, training, recognition and appreciation.
According to Byars, & Rue, (2008), compensation refers to all the extrinsic rewards employees receive in exchange for their work. Usually, compensation is composed of the base wage or salary, incentives or bonuses and benefits. According to Muathe, (2008), Compensation is payment to an employee in return for their contribution to the organization, that is, for doing their job. Muathe, (2008) continues that the most common forms of compensation are wages, salaries and tips. In today’s competitive business environment, organizations strive to gain competitive advantage by offering their employees highly competitive rewards. Compensation is not only a tool for gaining competitive advantage but also a strategy for attracting, motivating and retaining top talents within the organization, (Werner, & Dismore (2009).
Employee training is the process of providing employees with the knowledge and skills needed to do a particular task or job, Werner, & Dismore, (2009). They espouse that normally, a new employee’s manager has the primary responsibility for his/her training. The new employee’s training can have a significant influence on the new employee’s productivity and favorable attitude towards his/her job, (Byars, & Rue, 2008). Today, employers have got no other choice but to ensure the training and development of their employees while they remain valued assets in the organization.
Recognition can occur both in verbal, promotion, and in tangible reward. While citing Okumbe, (1998), Njoroge, (2011), refers to promotion as the advancement of a worker to a better job in terms of more skills, responsibilities, status and remuneration. When an employee is promoted to more challenging and more demanding job, they feel trusted and their contributions valued in the organization. Such an employee is more likely to give his/her all to the organization.
Working conditions play a very central role in influencing job satisfaction of any employee. Kyongo, (2006), asserts that employees would feel satisfied in their jobs if they are working in a clear and orderly work place, with adequate tools and equipment, acceptable levels of environmental quality, temperature, humidity and noise. The surrounding in which people work should not be that which pose a threat to the workers lives; when that is the case then the employer should ensure that there are safety measures in place to ensure that the hostile conditions are tamed.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Teacher absenteeism, lateness, low productivity, turnover, demonstrations and rampant strikes witnessed in secondary schools are a serious indication that teachers in secondary schools are not satisfied with their job.. Carrying out his study in USA, Ambrose et al., (2005) conducted a qualitative study to investigate the influences of motivation on faculty job satisfaction and retention. The study focused on Carnegie Mellon University of Pittsburgh over a period of two years in the USA. Findings suggested work motivation causes of job satisfaction such as salaries, collegiality, mentoring, and the reappointment, promotion, and tenure process of departmental heads.
Brady, (2007) reported that leadership, recognition, working conditions, salary, interpersonal relations and professional achievement and growth affect job satisfaction in the nursing faculty in baccalaureate- and graduate degree nursing programs in the USA, and that they also influence retention in nursing faculty in associate-degree nursing programs as well. Reporting on the effects of teacher absenteeism on quality teaching and learning in Ghana, Al-hassan, (2009), established that Poor remuneration is the leading reason for most teachers to indulge in absenteeism, late coming to school and early departure from school, making up 70% of the respondents. In Kenya, Akali, (2010) concluded that factors that affect teacher job satisfaction included pay, promotion, compulsory transfer, recognition and work conditions. She further found out that among the diploma teacher trainers in Kenya, promotion played a bigger role as far as job satisfaction is concerned.
It is therefore clear that teacher job satisfaction remains a mirage in secondary schools. It is therefore imperative that more studies be conducted to determine the extent to which the work motivation variables influence teacher job satisfaction in secondary schools. This study therefore sought to investigate the influence of work motivation on teacher job satisfaction in secondary schools.
1.3 Objectives of the study
i. To establish the influence of teachers training and experience on job satisfaction of secondary school teachers
ii. To determine the influence of working conditions on teacher job satisfaction in secondary schools.
iii. To examine the influence of recognition on teacher job satisfaction in secondary schools.
iv. To assess the influence of training on teacher job satisfaction in secondary schools.
1.4 Research Questions
i. What is the influence of teachers training and experience on job satisfaction of secondary school teachers?
ii. What is the influence of working conditions on teacher job satisfaction in secondary schools?
iii. What is the influence of recognition on teacher job satisfaction in secondary schools?
iv. What is the influence of training on teacher job satisfaction in secondary schools?
1.5. Scope of the Study
The scope of this study is on selected secondary schools in selected states in Nigeria. It discusses the influence of teachers’ training and experience on job satisfaction of secondary school teachers
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